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Adult Stem Cells as Regenerative Medicine

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Title: Adult Stem Cells as Regenerative Medicine


1
Adult Stem Cells as Regenerative Medicine
Kanika Varma1, Parul Rewari1, Jayanti Tokas1,
Rubina Begum1, Shalini Jain2 and Hariom
Yadav2 1Department of Biotechnology, JMIT,
Radaur, Haryana, India 2NIDDK, National
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892,
USA Email yadavhariom_at_gmail.com
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Adult Stem Cell
  • Undifferentiated Cells
  • Found throughout the body after embryonic
    development
  • Multiply by cell division to replenish dying
    cells
  • Regenerate Damaged Tissues.

11
Types of Adult Stem Cells
  • Hematopoietic
  • Mammary
  • Mesenchymal
  • Neural
  • Endothelial
  • Olfactory
  • Neural crest
  • Testicular

12
Properties
  • Defining properties- self-renewal potency
  • Lineage
  • Signaling pathways
  • Multidrug resistance
  • Plasticity / Transdifferentiation

13
Location of Adult Stem Cell
  • Identified in many organs and tissues -
  • Brain, Bone marrow , Peripheral blood, Blood
    vessels, Skeletal muscle, Skin, Teeth, Heart,
    Gut, Liver, Ovarian epithelium and Testis
  • Thought to reside in a specific area of each
    tissue - a stem cell niche

14
Plasticity
  • Basis for generating tissue for transplantation
  • Differentiate into cell types in organs / tissues
    other than those expected from the cells
    predicted lineage

15
Stem Cells in the Bone Marrow and Blood
  • Three types of stem cell originate in bone
    marrow
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell
  • Stromal Cells
  • Endothelial Progenitor Cells

16
In Other Tissues
  • Endothelial Progenitor Cells
  • Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells
  • Epithelial Cell Precursors in the Skin and
    Digestive System
  • Stem Cells in the Pancreas and Liver

17
Hematopoietic and Stromal Adult Stem Cell
Differentiation
stemcells.nih.gov/.../images/figure2_lg.jpg
18
Adult Stem Cell Therapies
  • The therapies require a stem cell source of the
    specific lineage and harvesting or culturing them
    up to the numbers required is a challenge.

19
Regenerative Medicine
  • Process of creating living, functional tissues to
    repair or replace tissue or organ function lost
    due to age, disease, damage, or congenital
    defects
  • It helps to produce extended healthy longevity,

20
Potential of Adult Stem Cells
21
Treating Leukemia
  • Leukemia results when white blood cells made in
    bone marrow begin to grow and function abnormally
  • One way to do this is through chemotherapy
  • When chemotherapy cannot solve the problem,
    doctors turn to bone marrow transplants.

22
Another Stem Cell Victory - Parkinson's Disease
  • A degenerative disorder of the central nervous
    system
  • Sufferers lack a sufficient amount of a brain
    chemical called dopamine
  • The cure of this disease is to multiply cells
    that release dopamine

23
Insulin Independence
  • There is insulin independence for Type 1 diabetes
    patients
  • A study showed patients receiving injections with
    adult stem cells were able to go as long as four
    years without having to rely on insulin shots.

24
Heeling of Heart by Adult Stem Cells
  • Cardiologists and heart surgeons worldwide
    currently use VesCell adult stem cell therapy to
    treat patients suffering from coronary artery
    disease, cardiomyopathy, and congestive heart
    failure.

25
Process of stem cells for spinal cord injury
  • Bone Marrow taken from the hip 6 weeks of
    cultivating the adult stem cells to increase
    total to 100 million.
  • Adult Stem Cells injected at injury site (C3-C4)
    in a surgical procedure

26
Thalesemia
  • The genetic defect results in reduced rate of
    synthesis of one of the globin chains that make
    up hemoglobin
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is
    the only curative approach

27
Curing cancer
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found
    within tumors or hematological cancers) that
    possess characteristics associated with normal
    stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise
    to all cell types found in a particular cancer
    sample
  • Lisa Ray to undergo stem cell transplant for
    blood cancer

28
Benefits of Adult Stem Cell Research
  • Easy to obtain
  • Potentially limitless in supply
  • Patients can use their own stem cells for
    treatment and therapy
  • Adult stem cells are politically neutral
  • Not offensive to any major interest group nor do
    they generate controversy.

29
Limitations of adult stem cell
  • The isolation of some types of ASC, for example
    the isolation of neural cells from a patient's
    brain, would be impractical
  • Where a person suffers from a genetic disorder or
    some types of cancers, ASC isolated from that
    individual will retain the damaging genetic
    alterations underlying the disease and so be of
    little therapeutic value
  • Unambiguous identification is difficult
  • Maintenance in culture is difficult

30
Conclusion
  • Adult stem cell research is complicated and
    rapidly changing .Todays medicine generally
    tries to support or treat injured tissues and
    organs, but stem cells may someday simply replace
    them.

31
THANK
YOU
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