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Recent Stuff 1914 to Present


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Title: Recent Stuff 1914 to Present

Recent Stuff 1914 to Present
The Big Picture
  • How do nationalism and self-determination impact
    global events?
  • Are world cultures converging? yes
    technology, popular culture, internet
  • What keeps cultures separated?

  • Go Back to Handout Notes
  • Review the following terms
  • Triple Entente Britain, France, Russia
  • Schlieffen Plan swift attack on France going
    through Belgium
  • Balkans Archduke Ferdinand
  • Allies
  • US Isolationism however Lusitania and
    Zimmerman telegram pull them out and into the War
  • 8 ½ million soldiers died

Treaty of Versailles
  • Officially ended WWI
  • Harsh punishments on Germany
  • Divided Austria-Hungary into separate nations
  • Caused economic problems and resentment in
    Germany conditions to lead to the rise of
  • League of Nations not successful, many nations
    did not join

Russian Revolution
  • Czar Nicholas II abdicates the throne
  • Alexander Kerensky establishes provisional
  • Shared power with soviets local councils
  • Soviets support Bolsheviks (Socialist Party)
    headed by Lenin
  • Lenin nationalizes the assets and industries
    (mass socialism)
  • Signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ceded part of W.
    Russia to Germany backs out of WWI

  • Counterrevolutionary revolts break out in
    Ukraine, Siberia and other parts of Russian
  • Red Army is formed
  • Caused a deepened distrust between Socialist
    Russia and the West
  • Turks
  • Ottoman Empire joined the losing Central Powers
    of WWI
  • Greece attacked
  • Ataturk becomes 1st president of Turkey and
    modernize and westernizes Turkey (changes legal
    code from Islamic to Western)

  • Stalin
  • Lenin removed themselves from WWI and institutes
    New Economic Policy successful in agriculture
    Lenin Dies
  • Stalin discards NEP
  • Five Year Plans increased farm production by
    taking over private farms (collectivization)
  • Said it was communism but really it was
    totalitarianism people did not share in the
    power or wealth
  • Industrialized USSR
  • Relied on terror tactics on people

  • The Great Depression
  • Financial headquarters shifted from London to New
  • US lent Europeans a lot of money for the war
  • US Stock market crashed and caused international
    catastrophe all were dependent on US credit to
    rebuild their countries
  • US and Germany were hit the hardest
  • Led to political ideology fascism (opposite of

  • Fascism
  • Focused on the people rather than the
  • Pushed for extreme nationalism (racial identity)
  • Italy Mussolini 1st state to have a fascist
  • Blackshirts fought socialists and communists
  • Marched to Rome and King allowed Mussolini to be
    Prime Minister Completely took over Parliament
    started expansion into N. Africa

  • Rise of Hitler
  • Wiemar Republic formed after WWI
  • Nazi party rises
  • German people keep rejecting solutions of the
    Reichstag Wiemar Republics elected body
  • Hitler rises to head of Nazi Party
  • Supports extreme nationalism
  • Darwinism convinced that the Aryan race was
    superior and was tainted by Slavs and Jews
    wanted them deported (then eliminated)
  • Seizes control Third Reich wanted to conquer

  • Hitler begins to rebuild military (against Treaty
    of Versailles)
  • Spanish democracy was falling apart Britain and
    France refused to help
  • Francisco Franco installed a dictatorship in
  • Germany took back the Rhineland, given the
    Sudetenland (appeasement)
  • Italy invades Albania
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact
  • Germany invades Poland Britain and France
    declare war on Germany

  • Japanese Aggression
  • Sent a list of 21 demands to China
  • Depression sent Japanese militarists to invade
    Manchuria renamed Manchukuo
  • Anti-Comintern Pact formed alliance with
  • Rape of Nanjing 250,000 Chinese were

  • WWII Terms
  • Blitzkrieg lightening war
  • Winston Churchill new leader of Britain
  • Battle of Britain Germanys massive air strike
    British succeeded in keeping German armies out
    of England
  • Germany invades Russia
  • Japan invades Indochina (Vietnam) US freezes its
    assets in the US Japan signs Tripartite Pact
    with Rome and Berlin Japan bombs Pearl Harbor
  • Manhattan Project development of Atomic Bomb
  • D-Day-allied land attack on Normandy, France
  • Atomic bomb dropped on Japan

  • Consequences
  • Holocaust
  • US and Soviet Union become superpowers
  • Marshall Plan money sent for Western Europe
  • Decline of colonialism and imperialism
  • Women kept their war jobs, sought higher
  • United Nations
  • Start of the Cold War-US and Soviet Union had
    opposite world views and each sought to contain
    the other lasted nearly 50 years

Cold War Era
  • US democratic/capitalist Soviet Union
  • US and Soviet Union tried to pull the world into
    their standoff.
  • Arms race nuclear arsenals
  • Germany parts of Eastern Europe
  • US and Soviet union wanted to promote their
    ideology (democracy vs. communism)
  • Germany was divided into 4 but became West
    Germany democratic and East Germany Soviet
    controlled (communist) capital city of Berlin
    was divided into E. and W.

East vs. West
  • Soviet bloc E. Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia,
    Romany and Hungary
  • Western bloc Western Europe including W.
    Germany, Greece and Turkey
  • Truman Doctrine (containment) US would aid
    countries threatened by communist takeover NATO
    Western bloc military alliance
  • Warsaw Pact in response to NATO Iron Curtain
    the line between the East and the West

China - Communists
  • Guomindang Party founded by Sun Yat-sen (led
    the Chinese Revolution of 1911, and ended Manchu
    Dynasty Three Principals of the People
    nationalism, socialism and democracy
  • Chiang Kai-shek establishes Guomindang as ruling
    party of China
  • Japan invaded China
  • Communists (allied with Soviet Union) are gaining
    strength in the North
  • After defeat of Japan civil war Guomindang
    (democratic) vs. communists

  • Mao Zedong rallied millions of peasants in the
    North and force the Guomindang to Taiwan where
    they set up Republic of China (they still
    consider themselves to be the real China)
  • Mainland China becomes Peoples Republic of China
    (the US will formally recognize in 1973) becomes
    largest communist nation
  • Taiwan has continuously rejected Chinas attempt
    at reunification

  • Mao Zedong
  • 1949 collectivization of agriculture and
  • Great Leap Forward huge communes were created
    (trying for a true Marxist state) communes had
    huge unreachable quotas set by the government and
    lied about it 30 million Chinese died of
  • Soviet Union pulled the their support of China
  • 1964 Mao builds military, begins Westernization,
    builds their own A-bomb

  • Mao retracts and starts Cultural Revolution
    Universities were closed, erased all traces of
    Western-influenced intelligentsia elites were
    forced to work on collective farms.
  • 1976 Deng Xiaoping restructuring economic
    policies opened up to Western ideas
  • Since then, China has incorporated some elements
    of capitalism however politically, China remains
    strictly communist Tiananmen Square massacre
    1 million demonstrators calling for democratic
    reform were fired upon and hundreds were killed

Division of Korea
  • Prior to WWII, Korea was invaded by Japan after
    the war Soviet Union and US divided Korea (was
    supposed to be until Korea was stable to run
    their own elections)
  • North Korea Soviet-backed communism
  • South Korea US-backed democracy
  • 1949-both Soviet and US withdrew their troops
    however North Korea attacked South Korea in
    attempt to unite their country
  • UN (US and Britain) went to aid the S. Koreans,
    it looked as if S. Korea would win, but then
    China enters to aid N. Korea armistice signed
    in 1953
  • Korea is still split today.

  • France tried to hang on to their colony of
    Indochina (Vietnam) however Vietminh fought them
  • The nation was divided into two N.
    Vietnam-communist (Ho Chi Minh) and the S.
    Vietnam democratic (Ngo Dihn Diem)
  • N. Vietnam and S. Vietnam go to war France and
    US come to the aid of S. Vietnam
  • N. Vietnam wins (US loses) and Vietnam unifies as
    a communist state.

Cuban Revolution
  • Platt Amendment US remained involved in Cuban
    affairs (after Cuba wins independence from Spain)
  • 1939-1959 US supported the Batista Dictatorship
    made wealthy even wealthier and no benefits for
  • Fidel Castro leads a peasant revolt
  • The Batista fled and Fidel Castro took control of
    the government

  • Fidel Castro
  • Suspended elections
  • Established a communist dictatorship
  • Seized and nationalized industries
  • Executed Rivals
  • Established strong ties with Soviet Union
  • President Kennedy authorized Bay of Pigs
    Invasions (trained exiled Cubans)
  • Cuban Missile Crisis US caught Soviet Union
    sending missiles to Cuba 3 month stand-off,
    Soviet backed down and removed missiles in
    exchange for a promise that the US would not
    invade Cuba
  • After collapse of Soviet Union in 1990, Cuba lost
    their main financial backer. Castro is still in

Europe The Cold War Ends
  • The Fall of Communism in E. Europe (1989)
  • People of the Eastern bloc begin to revolt with
    the West becoming richer and the East becoming

  • Poland
  • 1980 - Solidarity movement led by Lech Walesa
    Thousands of workers joined a strike for reform
    of communist economic system
  • Government tried to suppress the movement and
    arrested Lech Walesa
  • 1988 New Prime Minister Rakowski made
    reforms and legalized Solidarity
  • Mazowiecki became first elected Prime Minister
    since WWII
  • 1990 communism party fell apart in Poland and
    Lech Walesa was elected president
  • Economy since has greatly improved joined NATO
    in 1999 and the European Union in 2004

  • German Reunification (again)
  • Communism declined in the Soviet bloc
  • East Germans cut ties with Soviet Union and began
    negotiation with West Germany
  • 1989 Berlin Wall was torn down signaled end
    of E. Germany
  • Government started ambitious reconstruction
    program and modernization of East Germany

  • Soviet Union Collapses
  • Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power in 1985
    issues policies of glasnost (openness) and
    perestroika (restructuring) of Soviet economy
  • Private enterprise were added to economy
  • Gorbachev denounced the Great Purge by Stalin
  • Poland and other Soviet satellites declared their
    separation of the USSR
  • Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991 Russia
    becomes its own country again, Ukraine, Belarus,
    and Georgia become independent most shifts of
    power were peaceful except for the Balkans

  • Yugoslavia led to ethnic cleansing, Muslims
    were slaughtered by Serbians
  • UN became involved during the 1990s
  • Chechnya (Muslim dominated) part of Russia
    wants to break away
  • Most new countries of the former Soviet bloc have
    created constitutional democracies and economic
    systems based on capitalism
  • US is the worlds only superpower

Asia and Africa Independence Movements
  • India
  • Indian National Congress mainly Hindu formed
    in 1885 wanted to increase the rights of Indians
  • Muslim League (1906) wanted to imporve Islamic
  • Amritsar massacre (1919) 319 Indians (Hindu and
    Muslim) were slaughtered at this peaceful protest
    millions joined the independence movement
  • Mohandad Gandhi leader of the movement passive
    resistance (civil disobedience)

  • At the same time, increased violence between
    Hindu and Muslim
  • Gandhi wanted Indian unity despite religious
    differences, however Muslim League wanted their
    own Muslim nation (Pakistan)
  • After WWII Britain granted Indias
    independence Radical Hindus and Muslims start
    killing each other
  • Mumammad Ali Jinnah lead movement to form
    Muslim nation in the North
  • British supported a partition to save lives

  • 1947 India separates into 3 Pakistan, E.
    Pakistan (Bangladesh), India
  • Millions were forced to flee to go to respective
    area, and millions were killed along the way
    (including Gandhi)
  • Today, India and Pakistan are still fighting,
    especially in Kashmir

  • Africa
  • Independence motivated by India
  • N. African countries were the first to win
    independence (mostly Islamic)
  • Gamal Nasser general of Egyptian army
    overthrows king and established a republic
    nationalizes industries including Suez Canal
  • Countries S. of the Sahara had a more difficult
  • Few educated Africans once colonial power left,
    who would run the country
  • Boarders set up by Europeans made it hard for
    countries to nationalize

  • Rwanda
  • 2 warring ethnic groups Tutsi (15 of
    population) had political power and Hutu (85
    of population)
  • After independence (1962), Hutu revolted against
    Tutsi (thousands died)
  • 1972 Juvenal Habyariman military coup
    provided peace until his death
  • 1994 Habyariman died and civil war broke out
    again. 100 days of genocide 800,000 Tutsi died
  • 1995 2 million Hutu refugees go to Zaire

  • South Africa
  • 1910 Union of South Africa (combined the 2
    British Colonies and the 2 Boer (Dutch) republics
  • 1923 residential segregation established
  • 1926 blacks were banned from working the jobs
    that the whites wanted
  • 1931 S. Africa wins independence from Britain
    system of apartheid (separation of races)
  • 1950s creation of homelands were set aside for
    blacks (80 of pop.) worst areas of the country

  • 1950s Nelson Mandela becomes leader of African
    National Congress (wanted to abolish apartheid)
  • At first promoted peaceful protests
  • After Sharpeville massacre (protesting the use of
    passes to be in the cities), he promoted use of
    guerilla warfare
  • 1964 Mandela is arrested and imprisoned for
  • 1990 due to continued pressure from
    international community, Mandela is released
  • Apartheid crumbles 1994 Mandela is elected
    president in first free and open election

Middle East
  • After WWI, Ottoman Empire collapsed and League of
    Nations gains control of the lands
  • France Syria and Lebanon
  • Britain Palestine, Jordan, Iraq
  • Persia (Iran) already shared between Britain
    and Russia (spheres of influence)
  • Arabia united under Saudi Kingdom

  • Israel
  • Hebrews had previously occupied the lands in
  • Many Jews had left for Europe while many Muslims
    had made it their home
  • After WWII, many Jews wanted to return to the
    promise land
  • Zionists (Jewish nationalists) convinced British
    foreign secretary Arthur Balfour to sign the
    Balfour Declaration (1917) stating that Jewish
    people had a right to a home in Palestine
    (however should not displace Muslims already
    living there)
  • By beginning of WWII, 500,000 Jews had emigrated
    to Palestine

  • 1948 UN created two Palestines one for Jews,
    one for Muslims (like India and Pakistan, have
    been fighting ever since)
  • David Ben-Gurion 1st prime minister of Israel
    announced official creation of Jewish homeland
  • 6 Arab countries attack Israel Israel defeats
    them and ends up controlling most of Palestine
    Palestinians have no home.
  • Ongoing conflict over Israeli occupation of the
    West Bank, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip

  • Iran
  • 1925 Reza Shah Pahlavi started Westernization
    of Iran after WWII, Westernization increased.
    By 1960s land, education and women reforms
    (western fashions)
  • Infuriated Islamic fundamentalists, who believe
    the Quran should be law of the land
  • 1979 - President Carter visited congratulating
    Shah for his programs Iranian Revolution Shah
    was removed from power Iran became a theocracy
    led by Ayatollah

  • Women returned to traditional Islamic clothing
  • Quran became basis for legal system
  • 1980 Iraq invaded (Saddam Hussein) Iran and
    Iraq was supported by US cease-fire was signed
    in 1988.
  • 1989 Ayatollah died power struggle among
    Islamic fundamentalist and pro-westernization
  • Recently Iran developing peaceful nuclear

  • Oil
  • After Industrial Revolution, oil became fuel
    Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq have made
    billions of dollars from their oil supplies
  • Middle East unites and forms OPEC (Organization
    of Petroleum Exporting Countries) less powerful
    organization due to willy members individual
    members however have much power.

  • War in the Gulf Saddam Hussein
  • 1990 Iraq (Saddam Hussein) invades Kuwait to
    gain more oil reserves
  • UN (US) sent forces to drive out Iraq out of
    Kuwait (could have led to Hussein moving on into
    the rest of the Arabian peninsula)
  • Hussein remained in power until 2003 a
    coalition invade Iraq to oust him out of power
  • 2005 Iraqi citizens trying to build a new
    democratic nation but is slow due to suicide
    bombings against coalition forces and Iraqi

  • Taliban, Al Queda, Osama
  • 1980s Soviet Union sends troops to Afghanistan
    to help overthrow previous government and begin
    communism Soviet Union suffered severe guerilla
  • Gorbachev (Russia) withdraws the troops
  • Warring factions in Afghanistan fought to fill
    the power void

  • Taliban (Islamic Fundamentalist) would win the
    power struggle
  • strict Islamic law
  • severe restrictions on women
  • provided safe haven for Osama bin Laden (leader
    of international terrorist network Al-Queda)
    hates US
  • Supports Israel
  • Has military base in Saudi Arabia
  • US supports globalization which hurts Islamic

READ Pulling it all together pg 248-249