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Cranial Fossa: Brain and Spinal Cord

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Cranial Fossa: Brain and Spinal Cord PA 544 Tony Serino, Ph.D. Clinical Anatomy Pineal Gland Plays a major role in circadian rhythm control through its sympathetic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cranial Fossa: Brain and Spinal Cord


1
Cranial FossaBrain and Spinal Cord
  • PA 544
  • Tony Serino, Ph.D.
  • Clinical Anatomy

2
Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Gray vs. White matter
  • Protection of CNS
  • Meninges
  • CSF flow
  • Brain
  • Development
  • Selected structures
  • Spinal cord
  • Selected structures

3
Cranial Fossa
Anterior
Middle
Posterior
4
CNS (Central Nervous System)
  • Brian and spinal cord
  • Displays gray and white matter
  • Gray matter are areas of CNS with many cell
    bodies of neurons present (little myelinated
    nerve fibers)
  • White matter are area of CNS with few cell bodies
    but many myelinated nerve fibers
  • Protected by bone and membranes

5
Gray and White Matter
  • Since the cerebrum and cerebellum outgrow their
    cores, gray matter ends up on outside of both
    structures.

6
Meninges
  • Dura Mater outermost tough, fibrous CT
  • In brain, divided into two layers (periosteal and
    meningeal)
  • In spine, only one layer with fat filled space
    above the layer called the epidural space
  • Arachnoid middle web-like appearance
  • Potential space between Dura and arachnoid is the
    subdural space
  • Pia Mater innermost, delicate membrane fused
    with CNS surface
  • Space between Pia and Arachnoid is the
    subarachnoid space

7
Meninges of the Spinal Cord
Pia mater
Epidural space
Arachnoid
Meninges
Dura mater
Subdural space
Subarachnoid space
Dorsal Root Ganglion
Centrum
8
Brain Meninges
9
Extensions of Dura Materhold brain in cavity
Sellar diaphragm (not shown)
10
Venous Sinuses of Cranium
Superior Sagittal
Inf. Sagittal
Straight
Cavernous
Transverse
Sigmoid
11
Lateral Venous Lacunae
Arachnoid villi
12
Middle Meningeal Artery
Middle Meningeal A.
Maxillary A.
13
Brain Ventricles
14
Choroid Plexus
15
CSF (cerebral-spinal fluid) Flow
16
Hydrocephalus
  • Blockage of CSF flow can lead to severe brain
    and/or head enlargement.
  • In an adult, such swelling would be fatal.

17
Brain
  • Development
  • Structures
  • Functional Areas

18
Neural Tube forming
19
Neural Tube
20
Brain Vesicles
21
Flexures and Cerebral Cortex Growth
22
Major Divisions of Brain
Brain Stem midbrain pons medulla
23
Brain Anatomy (reqd)
24
Projections vs. Commissures
25
Functional Areas of Cerebrum
26
Primary Motor and Somatosensory Gyri
27
Basal Nuclei cerebral nuclei
28
Reticular Formation
Extends along length of brain stem used in
maintaining alertnesswhile awake also includes
motor nuclei such as centers for
Cardiac, Respiratory and Vasomotor control.
29
RAS receives inputs from eye, ear and general
sensation to maintain alertness
30
Limbic System functional system responsible for
emotion and memory
Cingulate Gyrus
Fornix
Mammillary body
31
Hypothalamus Control of Pituitary
32
Posterior Pituitary
33
Anterior Pituitary
34
Pineal Gland
  • Plays a major role in circadian rhythm control
    through its sympathetic connection to the
    hypothalamus
  • Melatonin increases at night and decreases during
    daylight
  • Implicated in the control of major life changes
    (such as the onset of puberty and adulthood

35
Internal Carotid Artery
36
Blood Supply(Circle of Willis)
Ant. Cerebral
Ant. Communicating
Middle Cerebral
Internal Carotid A.
Post. Communicating
Post. Cerebral
Basilar A.
Vertebral A.
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