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ANIMAL KINGDOM

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ANIMAL KINGDOM General characteristics: Eukaryotes Multicellular Heterotrophic Motile (able to move) at some point in their life cycle; may be sessile at other stages – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ANIMAL KINGDOM


1
ANIMAL KINGDOM
General characteristics
  • Eukaryotes
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophic

  • Motile (able to move) at some point in their life
    cycle may be sessile at other stages
  • Use oxygen to release energy from food aerobic
  • Cells are differentiated by purpose
  • A body plan

2
  • Most animals have
  • Sexual reproduction ( as an option)
  • hermaphrodites have functional male female
    sex organs
  • separate sexes male or female
  • internal or external fertilization
  • internal or external development of embryo
  • Some type of nervous system
  • Nerve net simplest Ganglia network of cells
  • brain - organ

3
  • Some type of support system
  • Exoskeleton outside endoskeleton- inside
  • Hydrostatic muscles filled with water

4
Body Plans there are different types of shapes
associated with animal bodies
3 Main body plans (symmetry) Asymmetrical Body
doesnt have any regular geometric pattern
difficult to distinguish top bottom left
right Ex. sponge
5
Radial Symmetry body parts come out 360 degrees
from a central point body plan has a definite
top (dorsal) and bottom (ventral)but no left or
right Ex. Sea star, sea anemone, jellyfish
6
Bilateral symmetry body parts are arranged like a
mirror image so that there is a top or back side
(dorsal) a bottom or belly side (ventral) a left
and right side a head region or anterior and a
tail or rear area (posterior). Ex. Planarian,
humans
7
Classification Invertebrates no backbone
or internal skeleton
Phyla
cnidaria
porifera
annelida
platyhelminthes
nematoda
molluska
arthropoda
echinodermata
8
Phylum Porifera (Pore bearers) Common name
Sponges   General Characteristics movement
movement as larvae sessile as adult symmetry
asymmetrical ( no definite pattern) no
differentiated tissues but there are
differentiated cells collar cells and ameobocytes
Obtaining food and removing wastes Sponges are
filter feeders - Water with food particles flows
in through the small pores of the body into the
central cavity. Food is passed into the tissues
by amebocytes where it is absorbed by the cells.
Waste is then passed out along the same pathway
and leaves with the water as it passes out the
osculum.
9
Reproduction
  • Asexual
  • Budding - a collection of cells forms off the
    main body eventually developing into a new
    organism that separates from the original
    organism
  • Regeneration - allows new organisms to develop
    from pieces of the old organisms
  • Sexual
  •  
  • Hermaphrodite an organism that contains
    structures to make both eggs and sperm. Common
    in sessile organisms.
  • Process
  • Sperm and eggs are developed by each sponge, then
    sperm are released into the water flow through
    the body cavity and out the osculum.
  • The sperm then combine with eggs from other
    sponges via amebocytes. Sperm egg combine to
    form zygote which develops flagellum and swims
    away.

10
Phylum Cnidaria (stinging cells)   Examples
jellyfish, hydra, coral, Portuguese Man-o-war,
sea anemone   General Characteristics Radial
symmetry tissues primitive systems
Body Plan Medussa bell shaped, mouth down
form   Polyp cylindrical, mouth up form  
Tentacles long flowing appendages that contain
stinging cells   Nematocyst ( cnidocytes)stinging
cells   Digestive cavity (coelom) digestive
cavity
11
Worms 3 phyla Flatworms (Simplest) ex. Tape
worms, flukes, planarian parasite parasite free
living
Round worms (many parasites) ex. Hook worms,
Ascaris, pin worms, heart worms
Segmented Worms (Most complex) ex. Earth worms,
leeches, sea worms
12
Mollusks Phylum Mollusca
  • General Characteristics
  • Soft bodies- 3 main parts
  • Mantle soft outer tissue layer
  • Foot structure used for moving or attachment
  • visceral mass- area that contains most of the
    internal organs (heart, digestive, respiratory,
    sexual)

13
4 most common classes of mollusks
Chitons - most primitive herbivores eat with
radula
Gastropods(stomach foot) or univalves(one
shell) Herbivores eat with radula
ex. Snails, conches, whelks, slugs, nudibranchs
14
Bivalves 2 shells on a hinge Ex. Clams,
oysters, scallops, mussels Filter feeders
Cephalopods (head foot) carnivores Ex. Octopus,
squid, cuttlefish, nautilus Most developed
15
Phylum name Arthropoda ( segmented feet)
  General Characteristics   1) Body arrangement
body arranged with 3 sections head, thorax
(middle), abdomen   2)Skeleton exoskeleton made
of chitin very strong in order to grow must
molt old exoskeleton   3)Appendages multiple
appendages (legs, antennae, mouth parts, swimming
paddles)   4)Muscles well developed muscular
system muscles attached to exoskeleton   5) Nervo
us system with nerve cord and brain Senses
eyes to see images some sense of
smell   6) Circulatory- open circulatory system
blood not in vessels Respiratory - aquatic
gills, terrestrial tracheal tubes book
lungs   8)    
16
Main groups Crustaceans, Arachnida, Myriapods
Insects   Crustaceans - subphyla
crustacea   Examples crabs, lobsters, shrimp,
crayfish, pill bugs (roly-poly), barnacles
copepods, lice, daphnia Habitat aquatic except
for pill bugs, lice, and a few species of
crab   Body regions - Large cephalothorax head
and thorax fused (carapace) and
abdomen  Appendages - 26 which include
antennae, mouthparts, claws, walking legs,
swimmerets, and tail region
17
Sub phylum Chelicerata- examples horseshoe
crabs spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks
Body regions sm. cephalothorax, large
abdomen Habitat most are terrestrial (land)
some marine (horseshoe crabs) Appendages 6 pr
of appendages 4 Walking legs, 1 pr pedipalps, 1
pr chelicerae   Type of eyessimple eyes No
antennae   Spinnerets - produce silk to form
webs ( not present in all spiders)
18
Subphylum Uniramia ClassesCentipedes,Millipedes
, and Insects Centipedes (hundred legs) have 1
pair of legs / segment long legs carnivores
may have venom in fang-like claws Millipedes (thou
sand feet) have 2 pair of legs / segment short
legs herbivores Habitat Terrestrial Body
regions Many equal sized segments
19
Insects Examples grasshoppers, ants, bees,
beetles, mosquitoes, moths, butterflies, fleas,
ladybugs Habitat Found almost every where in
the world except deep ocean Body Regions head,
thorax, and abdomen Appendages antennae, mouth
parts, 3 pairs of walking legs on thorax Compound
eyes and tympanic membrane (see
hear) Classified by types of appendages and
mouth parts
Development Incomplete Metamorphosis 12 of
insects Egg ? nymph ? adult
20
Complete Metamorphosis 88 of insects Egg ? larva
? pupa ? adult
Interesting Aspects of Insects
Disease many insects are vectors or carriers of
microorganisms that cause disease in
humans Social Insects ex. Bees, ants, termites
hierarchy structure queen, drones,
workers Camouflage, Mimicry, and Warning
coloration insects may evolve to look like plant
parts, look like poisonous insects, or advertise
their danger with bright colors (yellow, orange,
black)
21
  • Phylum Echinoderms
  • General Characteristics
  • Marine environment (shoreline or deep water)
  • Radial symmetry
  • Spiny Skin
  • Water vascular system
  • Endoskeleton (calcium plates )
  • carnivores

22
Vertebrates animals with a backbone or internal
skeleton
Phylum Chordata Classes
Osteichthyes
Chondrichthyes
Agnatha
Amphibia
Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia
23
  • Phylum chordata all have a nerve chord,
    notochord, gill slits or pouches, and a post-anal
    tail. Notochord may develop into vertebrae, gill
    pouches develop into gills or lungs
  • All vertebrates have
  • Endoskeleton (allows for larger body)
  • Axial skeleton skull, ribcage, vertebrae
  • Appendicular skeleton all other bones including
    appendage bones
  • Nervous system with brain
  • Closed circulatory system chambered heart
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • complete digestive system mouth ? anus

24
Cold-blooded vertebrates (Ectothermic body
temperature is same as environment) Fish Agnatha
(Jawless Fish) ex. Hagfish and lamprey Characteris
tics no jaw, paired fins or bone eel-like body
no vertebrae
25
Chondrichthyes Cartilagenous fish      Ex.
Sharks, skates, and rays Characteristics
calcified cartilage jaw, paired fins, scales,
backbone made of cartilage
26
Osteichthyes - Bony fish Ex. Ray-finned fish,
lobe-finned fish such as Salmon, grouper, bass,
tuna etc. Characteristics Jaws, paired fins,
bone skeleton, outer covering of scales
27
Amphibia ex. Frogs, toads, salamanders, sirens,
newts, mud puppies, caecilians
(legless) Characteristics most have 4 appendages
(tetrapods) have an aquatic larval (tadpole) and
terrestrial (adult) stages of life cycle moist,
permeable skin external fertilization egg have
no exterior membrane or shell
28
Reptiles Ex. Snakes, lizards, turtles,
tortoises, alligators, crocodiles, caimans,
gavials Characteristics Scaly water-tight skin
with keratin covering (avoids dehydration) Amnioti
c egg with leathery shell to survive on
land Clawed appendages if present
29
  • General Characteristics
  • Feathers composed of keratin
  • Wings forelimbs are modified into wings and
    covered in feathers
  • Lightweight skeleton- fused bone structure with
    hollow air-filled bones
  • Endothermic metabolism warmblooded fast,
    efficient metabolism to provide energy needed for
    flight
  • Respiratory system has additional air sacs
    besides lungs
  • Beak with different modifications based on food
    source
  • Oviparity lay amniotic eggs that incubate by
    parents and develop in to environment

30
  • Evolutionary History Adaptations
  • History
  • Birds have biochemical similarities and
    homologous structures that are like reptiles
  • Scientists believe that birds evolved from
    dinosaurs
  • Fossil evidence trace evolution from dinosaurs ?
    caudipteryx ? archaeopteryx ? birds
  • Adaptations
  • Feathers modified scales same composition
    (keratin)
  • Hollow, fused skeleton - lightweight very
    strong
  • Muscles and skin large pectoral and chest
    muscles for flying
  • Lungs air sacs receive increased oxygen and
    take in O2 when breathing in out

31
Flight feathers insulate, protect, and provide
a smooth, low friction surface Down insulation
Contour - flying surface and protection from
weather may be water resistant if preened
Reproduction Internal fertilization amniotic egg
with calcified hard shell for protection must be
incubated Digestion Have a complete digestive
system Mouth ? esophagus ? crop ? gizzard ?
intestines
32
Aves - Birds
33
Mammals
  • General Characteristics
  • Endothermic
  • Body hair made of keratin
  • Specialized teeth
  • Viviparous bear live young
  • Well developed brain
  • Diaphragm to aid in breathing
  • Mammary glands produce milk to feed young

34
3 groups of mammals Monotremes (first to
evolve) Characteristics egg layers difficulty
in controlling body temperature all found in
Australia Ex. duck-billed platypus echidna
35
Marsupials (pouched animals) Give birth to
immature young that continue to develop in
mothers pouch Many found in Australia Ex.
possums, koalas, kangaroos, wallaby
36
Placental mammals ( 95 of all mammals) Characteri
stics Carry unborn young in a uterus until young
develop enough to survive on their own unborn
young are nourished by placenta gestation the
time necessary for young to reach full
development before birth (varies by
species) Ex. rodents, bats, rabbits, dolphins,
whales, bears, manatees, cows, sheep, pigs,
horses, lions, elephants, monkeys, etc. and
humans
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