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Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorders Mental disorders account for 15.4% of the years of life lost due to death or disability, scoring slightly below cardiovascular conditions and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Psychological Disorders
  • Mental disorders account for 15.4 of the years
    of life lost due to death or disability, scoring
    slightly below cardiovascular conditions and
    slightly about cancer. (Murray Lopez, 1996).
  • Rates and symptoms of psychological disorders
    vary by culture, but no known society is free of
    the two terrible maladies of depression and
    schizophrenia.
  • Mental health workers view psychological
    disorders as patterns of thoughts, feelings, or
    actions that are deviant, distressful, and
    dysfunctional. (Stein et al., 2010).
  • Remember that this definition is created in a
    social context this disorder must apply both to
    the individual and to the primary group (eg
    biological family) that they interact with. In a
    word disorder distress.

2
Standards for Deviance
  • Anatomy of a disorder Attention Deficit
    Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)(m627 c607)
  • Being distractible, fidgety, and impulsive sounds
    like Y chromosome ADHD is diagnosed 3x as much
    in boys than girls.
  • After 1987, the proportion of American
    schoolchildren diagnosed quadrupled.
  • Although African-American youth display more ADHD
    symptoms than do Caucasian youth, they less often
    recieve an ADHD diagnosis. (Miller et al., 2009)
  • Is it the child? Or today's abnormal (by
    evolutionary standards) environment?
  • But...in neuroimaging studies, ADHD is associated
    with abnormal brain-activity patterns. (Barkley
    et al., 2002).

3
Causes of ADHD
  • Extensive TV watching and video gaming are
    associated with reduced cognitive self-regulation
    and ADHD. (Bailey et al., 2011)
  • ADHD often coexists with a learning disorder of
    with defiant and temper-prone behaviour.
  • ADHD is heritable, meaning there are culprit
    genes and abnormal neural pathways. (Poelmans et
    al., 2011).
  • ADHD is treatable with Ritalin and Adderall,
    stimulants that (counter-intuitively) calm
    hyperactivity and increase focus. (Barbaresi et
    al., 2007)
  • Behavioural therapies such as shaping can help
    the distress of ADHD.
  • But...it there a cost to the child of long-term
    use of stimulant drugs in treating ADHD?

4
The Medical Model
  • The concept that disease, in this psychological
    disorders, have physical causes that can be
    diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured,
    often through treatment in a hospital.
  • Fig. 47.1 (m629 c609 15.1)The bio-psycho-social
    approach to psychological disorders studies how
    biological, psychological, and socio-cultural
    factors interact to produce specific
    psychological disorders.
  • This is a good approach to the Western-only
    disorders of bulimia and anorexia nervosa.
  • But..schizophrenia symptoms are world-wide,
    including irrationality and incoherent speech.
  • The diagnosis of 'schizophrenia' provides a handy
    shorthand for describing a complex cluster of
    disorders.

5
DSM-IV TR
  • Table 47.1(m631 c611 15.1) will be on the next
    exam.
  • Axis One Is a Clinical syndrome present?
  • Axis Two Is a Personality disorder or mental
    retardation present?
  • Axis Three Is a General medical condition
    present?
  • Axis Four Are Psychosocial or Environmental
    problems present?
  • Axis Five What is the Global Assessment of this
    person's functioning?
  • Many arguments pro and con...but...depression and
    hyperactivity are genuine disorders even if
    triggered by a major life stress such as a death
    when grief does not go away. (Kendler, 2011).

6
Labeling Psychological Disorders
  • Once we label a person, we see that person
    differently.(Farina, 1982).
  • Labels matter. The Langer et al., (1980)
    experiment had therapists view videotaped
    interviews, being told that the interviewees were
    psychiatric or cancer patients, and gave them
    pathological labels.
  • Stereotypes do linger. Apart from the few who
    experience threatening delusions or hallucinated
    voices that command a violent act, mental
    disorders seldom lead to violence. (Fazel et al.,
    2010).
  • In real life, the mentally ill are more likely to
    be victims than perpetrators. (Marley Bulia,
    2001).
  • The representativeness and the availability
    heuristics lead to self-fulfilling prophecies.
    (Snyder, 1984).

7
Jail or Hospital?
  • Jared Lee Loughner was charged with the 2011
    Tucson, Arizona shooting that killed six people
    and injured Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords.
  • He had a history of mental illness, and was
    diagnosed with schizophrenia. Usually,
    schizophrenia is associated with violence only
    when accompanied by substance abuse. (Fazel et
    al., 2009)
  • In 2002, Andrea Yates was taken off her
    medication for clinical depression, and drowned
    her five children (the real Shutter Island story)
  • As Yates' fate illustrates, 99 of those whose
    insanity defense is accepted are nonetheless
    institutionalized, often for those as long as
    those convicted of crimes. (Litienfeld
    Arkowitz, 2011).

8
Who is Most Vulnerable?
  • One predictor of mental disorder, poverty,
    crosses ethnic gender lines.
  • Schizophrenia understandably leads to poverty,
    yet the stresses and demoralization of poverty
    can also precipitate disorders, especially
    depression in women and substance abuse in men.
    (Dohrenwend et al., 1992).
  • Table 47.3, Risk Protective Factors for Mental
    Disorders, will be on the next exam. (m635 c646
    15.6)
  • Over 75 of disorders strike by median age 24.
    (Robins Regier, 1991) anti-social personality
    disorder as early as age 8, alcohol dependency,
    obsessive-compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder,
    and schizophrenia by median age of 20 major
    depressive disorder later at age 25. Consider
    the neurology of the disorders as brain events.
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