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Infectious Diseases

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Infectious Diseases – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Infectious Diseases


1
Infectious Diseases
2
Pathogens
  • Several types of small microscopic organisms
  • Most are Parasites organisms that live in or on
    another organism and derive nourishment from it
  • Forms bacteria, viruses, rickettsias,
    protozoans, and fungi

3
Bacteria
  • Single-celled microorganism
  • Live anywhere air, soil, and water
  • Some are harmful to humans and some are good
  • When enter the body they multiply at a rapid rate
  • If person is not immune disease results

4
Virus
  • Smallest known type of infectious agent
  • One of our worst enemies
  • Not living cells
  • Entirely dependent on living cells for survival
  • Only attack specific types of cells called a
    host

5
Rickettsias
  • Resemble small bacteria but like viruses only
    able to multiply by invading a cell
  • Found in intestinal tracts of insects fleas
  • Passed by bites or feces deposited on the skin
  • Typhus or rocky Mt. spotted fever

6
Protozoans
  • Single celled organisms larger than bacteria with
    a complex structure
  • Most are harmless
  • Common in tropical areas with poor sanitation

7
Fungi
  • Simple organisms that cannot make their own food
  • Prefer dark, damp environments nails, hair, and
    skin
  • Ringworm and athletes foot

8
Direct contact
  • When an uninfected person comes in physical
    contact with an infected person
  • STDs
  • Bite
  • Pregnant mother to unborn child

9
Indirect contact
  • Enter the body through the lungs
  • exhaled, coughed, or sneezed out by infectious
    person
  • Inhaled and entered through eyes or nose

10
Animals or insects
  • Infected dogs or other animals can spread
    diseases rabies
  • Mosquitoes or other bloodsucking insect can
    spread pathogens from an infected person to a
    uninfected person malaria

11
Contaminated Objects
  • Pathogens are spread by objects an uninfected
    person may touch eating utensils, glasses,
    toothbrush, hairbrush, or needles

12
Environment
  • Food careless handling can lead to food
    poisoning
  • Water and soil careless disposal of infectious
    waste toxic dumping can be deadly
  • Air toxic chemicals released from factories

13
Immune Response
  • Two main types of defenses
  • Innate immune system inborn defenses provides
    nonspecific resistance
  • Adaptive immune system specific resistance
  • Both work together to protect against pathogens

14
Nonspecific resistance
  • Physical barriers first line of defense
  • Main barrier is your skin
  • Mucus membranes the soft, skinlike lining of
    many parts of the body mouth, nose, and
    bronchial tubes produce mucus to trap pathogens

15
  • Chemical barriers enzymes in tears and saliva
    destroy pathogens
  • Acidic digestive juices of the stomach destroy
    pathogens swallowed with food
  • Other chemicals cause body changes to help cells
    fight pathogens

16
  • Body cells When pathogens reach bloodsteam,
    certain types of white blood cells called
    phagocytes group together and destroy them

17
  • Inflammatory response body goes into a red
    alert
  • Chemical mediators are released, blood vessels
    dilate and increase blood flow, this allows
    phagocytes to leave blood stream and enter body
    tissues. This continues until the pathogen is
    destroyed.
  • Symptoms heat, redness, and swelling

18
Specific Resistance
  • General response not always enough to protect
    you from disease
  • Lymphocytes white blood cells that fight
    pathogens

19
  • B Cells encounter a pathogen they enlarge and
    multiply turn into plasma cells produce
    antibodies proteins that destroy or neutralize
    invading pathogens
  • Remain in blood to become active when encounters
    the pathogen again

20
  • T cells two main groups alerts B cells
  • Killer T cells multiply by presence of abnormal
    body cells attach to cells and release toxins
    to destroy abnormal cells
  • Helper T cells aid the activity of the B and T
    cells.

21
Respiratory infections
  • Common Cold viral
  • Symptoms stuffy, runny nose, sneezing, sore
    throat, and headache
  • Contracted breathing in contaminated droplets,
    rubbing eyes or nose

22
  • Influenza viral
  • Symptoms chills, fever, headache, muscle ache,
    and weakness
  • Contamination droplet coughed or sneezed into
    the air
  • Flu can develop into pneumonia serious
    inflammation of the lungs

23
  • Tuberculosis bacterial
  • Infection that most often affects the lungs
  • Symptoms coughing (sometime blood), chest pain,
    shortness of breath, fever, sweating, poor
    appetite, and weight loss
  • Contamination airborn droplets from coughing or
    sneezing

24
  • Strep throat bacterial
  • Infection of the throat
  • Symptoms sore throat, fever, general feeling of
    illness, and enlarged lymph nodes in neck
  • Contamination droplets coughed or breathed into
    the air

25
Immunity
  • Bodys natural resistance to many pathogens

26
Active immunity
  • Body develops to protect you from disease
  • Some last a life time and some a short period

27
Passive immunity
  • Temporary immunity that an infant acquires from
    its mother
  • Last for a few months until baby can produce
    antibodies on it own

28
Vaccination
  • Causing the body to produce antibodies against
    the pathogen
  • Live-virus vaccines weak virus
  • Killed-virus vaccines killed virus
  • Toxoids chemically treated bacteria to
    stimulate production of antibodies for active
    immunity
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