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The Bonds of Empire


Chapter 4 The Bonds of Empire 1660-1750 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Bonds of Empire

Chapter 4
  • The Bonds of Empire
  • 1660-1750

  • 4 major questions
  • How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations
    between England and its North American colonies?
  • What were the most important consequences of
    British mercantilism for the mainland colonies?
  • What factors explain the relative strengths of
    the British, French, and Spanish empires in North

Introduction (cont.)
  • What were the most significant results of the
    Enlightenment and Great Awakening in the British

Rebellion and War, 1660-1713
  • Introduction
  • Until the restoration of the Stuart kings in
    1660, England made little effort to rule its
    overseas territories
  • With the accession of Charles II (ruled from
  • England sought to expand its empire and trade
  • Impose royal authority on its colonies
  • Regulate their economic activities so as to
    benefit English commercial interests

Royal Centralization, 1660-1688
  • Stuart kings wanted to become absolute monarchs
    like Louis XIV
  • Rarely called parliament into session
  • Ignored the colonial legislatures
  • 1684Charles II revoked Massachusettss charter
  • Between 1686 and 1688, James II consolidated all
    of the New England colonies, NY, and NJ into the
    Dominion of New England
  • Abolished their assemblies
  • Placed full power into the hands of his arbitrary
    and dictatorial royal governor (Sir Edmond Andros)

Royal Centralization, 1660-1688 (cont.)
  • The colonists bitterly resented this denial of
    their rights
  • Tensions ran particularly high in Massachusetts
    and NY

The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689
  • 1688-1689James IIs high-handed, pro-Catholic
    actions led to the Glorious Revolution in England
  • He was forced into exile
  • The throne went to William and Mary
  • Agreed to a limited monarch and promised to
    summon Parliament annually and respect the civil
    liberties of English people

The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689 (cont.)
  • When news of the Glorious Revolution reached
    America in 1689, New Englanders rebelled against
    Andros and his councilors
  • Massachusetts and other colonies appealed to
    William and Mary for the return of their charters
  • The new monarchs dissolved the Dominion of New
    England and issued charters granting each colony
    the right to have a representative assembly

The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689 (cont.)
  • Massachusettss new charter did not give it as
    much independence as it had formerly enjoyed
  • Its governors would be appointed by the crown,
    not elected
  • It would have to tolerate and share power in the
    colony with Anglicans

The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689 (cont.)
  • Leislers Rebellion in New York and John Coodes
    uprising in Maryland also were inspired by the
    Glorious Revolution

A Generation of War, 1689-1713
  • British and French fought against each other in 2
  • King Williams War (War of the League of
  • Queen Annes War (War of the Spanish Succession)
  • Most of the fighting was done in Europe
  • Some fighting happened in North America

A Generation of War, 1689-1713 (cont.)
  • Peace returned in 1713
  • France still controlled the North American
  • English colonist felt a heightened sense of
    British identity and dependence on their mother
    countrys protection from their powerful neighbor

Colonial Economics and Societies, 1660-1750
  • Mercantilist Empires in America
  • Mercantilismeach nations power was measured by
    its wealth, especially in gold
  • Followed by Britain, France, and Spain
  • The country should produce within its own empire
    as much of what it needed as possible
  • Its exports to foreign competitors should exceed
    its imports

Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
  • To achieve the goals of mercantilism
  • British Parliament passed a series of laws known
    as the Navigation Acts
  • 1651 to 1733
  • Required all trade to be conducted on
    British-owned ships
  • Prohibited Americans from selling certain
    products (tobacco, rice, furs, indigo, and naval
    stores) to foreign countries unless they first
    passed through England

Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
  • Navigation Acts (cont.)
  • Placed high taxes on products that Americans
    bought from outside the empire (i.e. molasses
    from French Caribbean)
  • Forbade colonials form competing with British
    clothing manufactures

Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
  • Navigation Acts (cont.)
  • Parliament intended these laws to benefit only
    England, the acts in practice did not unduly
    hamper the colonists
  • The laws cut into the profits of rice and tobacco

Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
  • Benefits of Navigation Acts
  • Shipping had to be done on British vessels and
    this stimulated the growth of Americas merchant
    marine, shipbuilding, and ports
  • Bounties paid to producers of hemp, lumber, and
    other items under the Navigation Acts encouraged
    the development of those industries in the

Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
  • The restrictions on large-scale manufacturing did
    little harm, since only home production and small
    workshops were economically feasible in America
  • http//

Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
  • French and Spanish colonies in North America did
    not develop nearly as robust economies as the
  • New France
  • Main export was furs
  • By 18th century furs did not bring much profit
  • French govt. even underwrote the fur-trading with
    the Indians in order to keep on good terms with
    their Native American allies

Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
  • Spanish colonies
  • Colonists smuggled British and French products
  • Did very little manufacturing
  • Mercantilist principles did not work well for
    France and Spain because they did not have the
    large merchant class with liquid assets to invest
    in the colonies and other commercial ventures
  • Great Britain could do this

Population Growth and Diversity
  • French and Spanish colonies in NA lagged behind
    the British in population growth as well as
    economic development
  • 1750
  • British North America had 1.1 million
  • New France had 60,000
  • Spanish North America had 19,000

Population Growth and Diversity (cont.)
  • Religion
  • British opened their colonies to all Europeans of
    whatever religion
  • French and Spanish barred non-Catholics and made
    no effort to attract settlers from countries
    other than their own
  • The steady growth of the British colonies
    outpaced not only their European rivals, but also
    Britain itself

Population Growth and Diversity (cont.)
  • After 1700, British North America grew rapidly
    from both natural increase and the arrival of
  • 18th century immigrants came less from England
    and more from other places (pg. 97)
  • Africans brought on slave ships
  • Scots-Irish, Irish, and Germans
  • Many of the Europeans came as indentured servants
  • English colonies became more racially and
    ethnically diverse (not always welcomed by all
    English colonist)

Population Growth and Diversity (cont.)
  • Most 18th century white immigrants were too poor
    to buy land in the already developed coastal
    areas so they pushed into the Piedmont region
  • Eastern slope of the Appalachians
  • By 1750 1/3 of colonial population lived there
  • Map on page 98

Population Growth and Diversity (cont.)
  • From 1713 to 1754, the importation of slaves to
    the mainland was greatly increased
  • Black colonial population rose from 11 to 20
  • Most slaves lived in the South
  • 15 were in the colonies north of MD
  • African American population also multiplied
    through natural increase

Rural White Men and Women
  • Worked small farms
  • Depended on the labor of their sons
  • Supplemental production from wives and daughters
  • Clothing
  • Vegetables
  • Poultry
  • Few inherited land
  • Young couples at first
  • Worked for others
  • Borrow to buy own farms

Colonial Farmers and the Environment
  • Rapidly cut down the forests
  • Bring more land under cultivation
  • Uses of timber
  • Fences
  • Fuel
  • Buildings
  • Sold wood to townspeople

Colonial Farmers and the Environment (cont.)
  • Results of deforestation
  • Drove away large game
  • Greater extremes in temperature
  • Less dependable water levels in streams
  • Reduced amount of fish
  • Dried and hardened the soil

Colonial Farmers and the Environment (cont.)
  • Farmers grew tobacco and other soil-depleting
  • Did not use fertilizer
  • No crop rotation or letting field lie fallow
  • Land lost fertility
  • Yields seriously diminished

The Urban Paradox
  • 1740--4 of colonists lived in cities
  • Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charles Town
    (Charleston today)
  • Thriving ports
  • Shipped livestock, grain, and lumber that
    enriched the countryside
  • Escalating problems
  • Urban poverty, crowding, poor sanitation,
    periodic epidemics of contagious diseases

The Urban Paradox (cont.)
  • Women in cities
  • Middle-class women ran complex households that
    included servants, slaves, and apprentices
  • sewing, knitting, daily trips to public market,
    family businesses, etc.
  • Most had at least 1 household servant
  • Help with cooking, cleaning, laundering

  • The economic progress of colonial America meant
    that most masters could afford to keep their
    slaves healthier.
  • For the slavesmeant heavier workloads and longer
  • Worked harder and longer and had lower standards
    of living than whites
  • Masters generally spent 60 more to maintain
    their white indentured servants than their black

Slavery (cont.)
  • The number of slaves residing in cities mounted
  • 20 of population in NYC
  • Majority of population in Charles Town and
  • urban racial tensions ran high
  • 1739 Stono Rebellion in South Carolina
  • 1712 and 1741 slave conspiracies in NY
  • Almost all rebellions by slaves were suppressed
    by frightened whites

The Rise of the Colonial Elites
  • In the 18th century, class differences were
    becoming more apparent in America
  • Wealthy rural gentry and urban commercial elites
    attempted to imitate the fashions and lifestyles
    of the European upper class
  • Bought expensive chinaware
  • Learned formal dances
  • Studied foreign languages
  • Cultivated the manners of the gentry
  • Some even sent sons abroad to study
  • Growing taste for British consumer goods

Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750
  • France and the American Heartland
  • After 1713, France resumed building its empire in
    North America
  • 1718founded New Orleans
  • Made it the capital of Louisiana province
  • Farming, hunting, fishing, trading with Indians
  • Alliances with the Choctaws in LA
  • Tried to win over Native American trading
    partners in the Ohio Valley and Great Plains

France and the American Heartland (cont.)
  • Several French posts in the Ohio Valley became
    sizable villages housing Indians, French, and
    mixed-ancestry metis
  • Generally more successful in getting along with
    the Indians than the British, the French also
    crushed tribes that stood in their way such as
    the Natchez

Native Americans and British Expansion
  • The Carolinians met resistance from the Indian
    tribes on whose lands they were encroaching,
    culminating in the Tuscarora (1711-1713) and
    Yamasee (1715) wars
  • Those tribes were driven from the area
  • Tuscarora moved to upstate New York and joined
    the Iroquois Confederacy

Native Americans and British Expansion (cont.)
  • Covenant Chain
  • Series of treaties
  • Aided the colonists fight for lands
  • Solidifying Iroquois power among Native Americans
    throughout the Northeast
  • http//

Native Americans and British Expansion (cont.)
  • Pennsylvania coerced the Delaware Indians into
    ceding their lands and moving into territory
    adjacent to that of the Iroquois
  • Other eastern tribes also were pushed westward
  • they were used by the Iroquois as buffer between
    themselves and the aggressive English

(No Transcript)
British Expansion in the South Georgia
  • Georgia was the last of the original 13 colonies
    to be established on the North American mainland
  • Only one to received some financial support from
    the British govt.
  • James Oglethorpe founder
  • Haven for English debtors
  • Outpost protecting the Carolinas from the Spanish
    empire to the south

British Expansion in the South Georgia (cont.)
  • 1733Savannah was established
  • 17402,800 settlers there
  • Most were not English debtors
  • 1/2 were not English
  • German, Swiss, Scottish, Jewish
  • Society of industrious small farmers
  • Able to defend themselves from attack
  • Banned African slavery
  • Limited size of landholdings

British Expansion in the South Georgia (cont.)
  • Settlers switched to rice cultivation to make a
  • Needed large farms and slaves
  • 1750 restrictions were dropped
  • Attracted more settles and developed a booming
    plantation-slave economy

Spains Borderlands
  • Spain spread its empire throughout the Southwest
    and part of the Southeast
  • European population in New Mexico grew very
  • Navajo and Apache raids ceased
  • Those tribes made an alliance with the Spanish
    against the Utes and Comanches

Spains Borderlands (cont.)
  • Texas
  • Spanish established outposts and missions
    (including the Alamo)
  • Indians in Texas traded more with the French
  • Did not like to farm for the Spanish
  • Periodic raids on the province by the French and
    Comanches discouraged Hispanic settlement in
  • As late as 1760, only 1,200 Spaniards lived there

Spains Borderlands (cont.)
  • The Spanish attempted to weaken the British
    Carolinas and Georgia by offering freedom to
    English-owned slaves who fled to their colony of

The Return of War, 1739-1748
  • War among the imperial rivals for North America
    resumed in 1739
  • First war was between British and Spanish over
    the Florida-Georgia border
  • This war merged with the larger War of the
    Austrian Succession (King Georges War)
  • Only one battle on North American soil during
    King Georges War
  • Battle of Louisbourg which was on the St. Lawrence

The Return of War, 1739-1748 (cont.)
  • New Englanders seized Louisbourg from the French
  • In the peace treaty (Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle)
    the British returned Louisbourg for an outpost
    the French had taken in India
  • Many Americans felt lingering resentment over how
    little England appreciated the lives they had
    sacrificed to gain Louisbourg

Public Life in British America, 1689-1750
  • Colonial Politics
  • Shift from royal governors and appointed
    officials to the representative colonial
  • Most important political result of the Glorious
    Revolution and the adoption of the English Bill
    of Rights in British America
  • These legislative bodies exercised influence over
    the governors by controlling their salaries,
    authorized spending, imposed taxes, etc.
  • America (at least the upper class) became more
    and more self-governing (except for trade
    regulations, restrictions on printing money, and
    declaring war)

Colonial Politics (cont.)
  • Wealthy elites dominated colonial politics
  • Elected to the colonial assemblies
  • Appointed to the governors councils
  • Appointed to judgeships in the courts
  • Women, blacks, Indians could NOT vote or hold
  • Property qualifications excluded about 40 of
    white males from voting and holding office
  • Proportion of men who did have the vote was
    higher than in England and Ireland during the
    same time period

The Enlightenment
  • American intellectuals were influenced by the
    ideals of the 18th century Enlightenment
  • Emphasized reason, progress, science, and
    capacity for human improvement

The Enlightenment (cont.)
  • Skeptical of beliefs not founded on science or
    strict logic
  • Mostly in cities
  • Circulated the latest European books,
    investigated nature, conducted experiments
  • Some were Deists (believed in a god who created
    the universe and set it in motion according to
    natural laws discoverable by human intellect but
    who did not intervene thereafter with miracles

The Enlightenment (cont.)
  • Franklin and Jefferson were Deists
  • Formally attended church and called themselves
  • Enlightened intellectuals took a dim view of the
    emotional excesses of the Great Awakening

The Great Awakening
  • 1740s
  • an outpouring of passionate Christian
  • Across all 13 colonies
  • Jonathan Edwards, William Tennent, Theodore
    Frelinghuysen, George Whitefield
  • Colonists repented and seek salvation

George Whitefield
The Great Awakening (cont.)
  • Many new colleges were founded to educate
  • Princeton (Presbyterian)
  • Columbia (Kings College) (Anglican)
  • Brown (Baptist)
  • Dartmouth (Congregationalist)
  • Insistence on the equality of all born-again
    Christians in Gods eyes and the corruption of
    unsaved upper-class leaders

  • By 1750, the British mainland colonies had
  • grown prosperous,
  • established representative governments,
  • upper-and middle class intellectuals
    participating in the developing of new ideas
    sweeping Europe known as the Enlightenment
  • Anglo-American society was also torn by class,
    race, and religious tensions

Conclusion (cont.)
  • The imperial wars that Britain fought with the
    aid of the colonists between 1739 and 1748 both
    drew Americans closer to the mother country and
    spawned some resentment about British lack of
    appreciation for Americans contributions