RISE OF MASS DEMOCRACY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – RISE OF MASS DEMOCRACY PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 78ed41-NTA1Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

RISE OF MASS DEMOCRACY

Description:

Title: Slide 1 Author: John Steere Last modified by: atallant Created Date: 7/10/2006 1:31:15 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:28
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 48
Provided by: JohnSt264
Learn more at: http://www.scott.k12.ky.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: RISE OF MASS DEMOCRACY


1
RISE OF MASS DEMOCRACY
  • Chapter 13

2
Politics Of The People
  • By the 1820s democracy of all the people was no
    longer considered something to be feared.
  • People wanted to be more involved
  • Asset to be seen as man of the people, and not of
    the elite.
  • Politicians had to find a way to appeal to the
    common man

3
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Jacksonian Democracy--politics of the masses and
    for the masses.
  • Logical extension of Jeffersonian Democracy.
  • Jeffersonpeople should be governed as little as
    possible.
  • Jacksongoverning should be done directly by the
    people.
  • Jackson believed in small government although
    believed in strong President.
  • Catalyst universal white male suffrage.

4
Voting Requirements in the Early 1800s
5
Factors Leading To The New Democracy
  • Outgrowth of egalitarian republican ideals of the
    revolution
  • Growth of market economyWhy?
  • Panic of 1819Why?
  • Missouri Comprise of 1820Why?
  • Consequences
  • Voter turnout much higher
  • Campaigning much more aggressive and overt
  • Nominating conventions replaced Congressional
    Caucus so that presidential candidates are
    selected more democratically

6
Election of 1824
  • Jackson is very popular war hero and runs as
    candidate of the west and common man.
  • Has three opponents
  • John Quincy Adams--Monroes Sec. of State.
    Candidate of Easterners and establishment.
  • Henry Clay -Also a westerner and natural regional
    rival of Jackson. But much different view of
    role of national government.
  • William Crawford--Southerner

7
Election of 1824
  • All four Democratic-Republicans
  • But, clear factions
  • Jackson benefit common man limited national
    government.
  • Clay and Adams strong activist federal
    government.
  • Federalists-light
  • Calhoun VP on both Adams and Jackson tickets.

8
Electoral College Deadlock
  • Jackson wins the most popular votes (42) and
    electoral votes, but does not get a majority of
    the electoral votes.
  • Thus, House must choose between the top three.
  • Clay finished fourth and is eliminated.
  • Crawford has a stroke
  • Thus, between Adams and Jackson

9
Corrupt Bargain?
  • Why does Clay have the power to influence the
    vote?
  • Why does Clay back Adams?
  • Adams wins the presidency Clay becomes Sec. of
    State.
  • Jacksons supporters scream corrupt bargain

10
A Corrupt Bargain?
11
John Quincy Adams
  • Austere.
  • Short, bald, stiff and frosty. Loner.
  • Very successful Sec. of State, but was not well
    suited to the presidency.
  • How he won made things worse
  • Was first minority President
  • He refused to play the spoils game made
    supporters grumpy

12
Adams Unpopular Policies
  • Adams Nationalistic policies went against the
    tide of opinion.
  • Advocated national roads, canals, universities,
    observatories
  • South objected. Why?
  • West objected. Why?
  • Land policies also a bust with West
  • Tried to protect Indians in Georgia.

13
Going Whole Hog For Jackson In 1828
  • Jackson v. Adams, again.
  • Democratic-Republican party splits into two.
  • National Republicans, led by Adams.
  • Policies?
  • Democratic-Republicans, led by Jackson. Become
    the Democrats.
  • Policies?

14
1828 Election Results
  • Nasty campaign full of mud-slinging.
  • Jackson wins 178-83 in the electoral college.
    Adams polls only 44.
  • Jackson carries the South and West and the
    Eastern laborers.
  • Adams carries New England and the moneyed class.

15
Jackson Inauguration First Kegger in the White
House?
16
Jacksonian Revolution
  • Election of 1828 one of most important in US
    history.
  • Marks a major change in American Politics.
  • Why was it a revolution?

17
The Center of Population in the Country Moves WEST
18
The Advent Of Old Hickory Jackson
  • Jackson personified the new west. He was
    individualistic, rugged, versatile and a war
    hero.
  • Personal History
  • Jacksons Firsts
  • First president from the west
  • First to be nominated at a formal convention
  • First President without a college education
    (except Washington)
  • First President who not part of the educated
    elite that was at the heart of the revolution and
    the Constitution.

19
Jacksons Philosophy
  • Suspicious of the federal government because it
    was remote from the people
  • Believed in limited Fed. government (See
    Jefferson)
  • Hostile to the active federal econ. role of
    American System National Bank
  • Strong believer in the Union
  • opposed nullification and those who did not
    believe that federal power was supreme. (See
    Hamilton)
  • Very strong president. Insisted on prompt and
    loyal support from his subordinates.
  • He was the great vetoer Vetoed more bills than
    predecessors combined.

20
The Spoils System
  • Jacksons attitude toward bureaucracy and spoils
    system.
  • During Jacksons 8 years only about 20 of civil
    servants were dismissed, but sets a bad
    precedent.
  • Problems with spoils system

21
Tariff of Abomination
  • New England and East like Tariffs. Reduces
    competition.
  • South and West hate tariffs.
  • Economic concerns
  • Political/Sectional concern
  • Jacksons supporters try to put JQ Adams in
    political trap by pushing for a very high tariff.
  • Plan backfires, and tariff is passed.
  • South is outraged at Adams, and calls it Tariff
    of Abomination

22
South Carolina Exposition and Nullification
  • Calhoun secretly writes, The South Carolina
    Exposition.
  • What is his thesis?
  • Compact theory v. Nationalist theory.

23
Nullies In South Carolina
  • Tariff of 1832
  • South Carolina votes to nullify the tariff.
  • Threatens to secede
  • Jacksons reaction.
  • Jackson issues proclamation against nullification
    and raises an army to march on SC
  • Things at a dangerous crisis point.

24
Nullification Crisis
  • Henry Clay is motivated to find a compromise.
    Why?
  • Tariff Bill of 1833
  • As a face-saving device, Congress passes the
    force bill.
  • South Carolina happy for this out. Why?
  • SC repeals nullification.

25
Transplanting The Tribes
Trail of Tears
26
Transplanting the Tribes
  • Legal status of Indians
  • Attitudes of Americans toward Indians
  • Five Civilized tribes in South East
  • Jacksons attitude toward Indians

27
Indian Removal Act
  • Indian Removal Act (1830).
  • voluntary removal of Indians from southeast to
    reservations in Eastern Kansas and Oklahoma.
  • Forced removal of over 100,000 Indians.
  • Heaviest blow falls on the Five Civilized Tribes
  • Theory behind the policy
  • Trail of Tears
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs -1836
  • Black Hawk Rebellion

28
Indian Removal
29
The Bank As A Political Football
  • Jackson and supporters hated BUS.
  • Some of Jacksons allegations were true.
  • It was hostile to wildcat banks of the west.
  • It did foreclose on a number of western farms.
  • It was a mammoth and monopolistic bank.
  • It was to some extent autocratic and tyrannical.
  • It did greatly impact economy.
  • Was corrupt.

30
Analysis of BUS
  • Many good things about the Bank.
  • Imposed restraint on wildcat banks.
  • It reduced bank failures How?
  • It provided a national paper currency
  • It promoted economic expansion.
  • Allowed nations funds to be effectively recycled
    back into the economy.

31
Clays Scheme
  • Clay used the Bank issue to try to hurt Jackson
    politically
  • Clays Scheme?
  • Why does it backfire?
  • Clay gets recharter bill passed.
  • Jackson vetoes and issues a scathing veto message
  • Basis for veto
  • Significance of veto

32
The Bank As A Political Football
  • Jacksons veto is very popular with rural, South
    and West.
  • Increases Jacksons popularity with his core
    constituency.
  • Antagonizes nationalists
  • BUS is now one prime issues in the election of
    1832.

33
Election of 1832
  • Jackson (Dem.-Rep.) v. Clay (National
    Republicans)
  • First election with a third party.
  • Anti-Masonic Party
  • First election with national nominating
    conventions
  • Clay seems to have a huge advantage. Why?
  • But, Jackson wins easily. Why?

34
1832 Election Results
35
Badgering Biddles Bank
  • Jackson believed he had a mandate to end the BUS
    when its charter expired in 1836.
  • Jackson decides to weaken it before issue of
    recharter comes up. Why?
  • Jacksons Plan
  • Pet Banks
  • Biddles Response?
  • Consequences?
  • Specie Circular

Nicholas Biddle
36
The Birth Of The Whigs
  • Whig Party emerges in 1834. Cause?
  • Clay and Calhoun.
  • Democratic-Republicans now Democrats.
  • Primary common bond is opposition to Jackson.
  • Dubbed an Organized incompatibility
  • Elements of Whig Party?

37
Election of 1836
  • In 1836 Whigs run several regional candidates.
  • Why?
  • What is their strategy?
  • Jackson hand-picks Van Buren as his successor and
    engineers his nomination.
  • Van Buren won only a narrow majority of the
    popular vote, but won electoral vote, 170-124.

38
Woes for Van Buren
  • Skilled politician and very bright.
  • Inherited lots of political problems.
  • Party peeved at Jackson rammed through his
    nomination
  • Inherits all Jacksons enemies, but not Jacksons
    support from common man.
  • Jacksons economic policies (specie circular)
    caused economic downturn.
  • Problems with Canada and Texas.

39
Depression And Independent Treasury
  • Panic of 1837.
  • Causes?
  • Effects?
  • Whigs propose solutions involving government
    action, but Van Buren vetoes. Why?
  • Van Burens Plan Independent Treasury Bill
    (Divorce Bill)
  • Details?
  • Problems with it?

40
American Settlement in Texas
  • 1823 Mexico grants a huge tract of land to
    Stephan Austin.
  • Mexicos conditions on settlers
  • Why does Mexico open land to Americans?
  • Americans come, but largely ignore the two
    conditions.

Moses Austin
41
American Settlement in Texas
  • 1835, 30,000 Americans in Texas.
  • Davy Crockett, Sam Bowie and Sam Houston.
  • Tension between Mexico and Texans
  • Slavery issue
  • Mexicos policies to regain control
  • Santa Anna

Sam Houston. First Governor of Texas Big Drunk
42
Texas Revolution
  • Early 1836, Texas declares its independence with
    Sam Houston as commander in chief.
  • Santa Anna attacks the Alamo
  • Goliad
  • Santa Anna defeated at San Jacinto
  • Santa Anna captured and forced to sign treaty
    under duress. Rio Grande
  • Santa Anna quickly repudiated the treaty, but
    doesnt have power to attack again.

43
Texas an International Derelict
  • Texas could not have won its Independence without
    US help. Unofficial help, but also very tangible.
    Both men and supplies.
  • This increased Mexico-US tensions.
  • Texas causes political tension in US. Why?

44
Texas an International Derelict
  • Texas wanted diplomatic recognition from US.
  • Jackson was reluctant to recognize Texas as an
    independent republic.
  • Why?
  • On last day of office he does recognize Texas.
  • Texans want to be part of the US and request
    annexation.
  • Why was annexation by US politically complicated?

45
Election of 1840
  • Van Buren nominated by the Dems in 1840 no
    strong alternative.
  • Whigs passed over Clay and Webster and nom.
    William Henry Harrison. Why?
  • John Tyler of Va. is his VP
  • Harrison platform vague.
  • Why Whigs win

46
The Two Party System Emerges
  • Two party system began to reemerge under Jackson
    and fully reemerged in the election of 1840 with
    the Whigs.
  • Both parties were big-tent parties containing
    diverse elements
  • Were also diverse geographically, and their
    presence helped retard the development of purely
    sectional parties

47
Whigs v. Democrats
  • Democrats
  • States rights
  • federal restraint in social and economic affairs
  • Champion of individual and working class.
  • Distrusted privileged class attempts to usurp
    government
  • Strong in South and West
  • Opposed high tariffs as benefiting eastern
    business at expense of farmer.
  • Whigs (Majority)
  • willing to use government to realize their
    objectives
  • argued against using class differences to appeal
    to self interest of one class over another.
  • Believed in strong govt initiative such as the
    BUS, tariffs, internal improvements, public
    schools and moral reform, such as slavery.
About PowerShow.com