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HUMS 101: Early Modern Economy and Commerce – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: America:%20A%20Concise%20History


1
HUMS 101 Early Modern Economy and Commerce
2
  • I. Europeans and Asian Commerce
  • A. Portuguese Empire of Commerce
  • Economic weaknesses but military strengths
  • In 1498, Vasco de Gama reached India.
  • Trading post empire and cartaz pass system
  • Mombasa, Hormuz, Goa, Malacca, and Macao
  • Entry into Asian trade created Portuguese-Asian
    port culture
  • Decline after 1600

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  • I. Europeans and Asian Commerce
  • B. Spain and the Philippines
  • Lure of the Spice Islands
  • Magellans voyage (15191521)
  • Spanish rule (15651898)
  • Mindanao and Islam as an ideology of resistance
  • Manila and the Chinese 20,000 Chinese settled
    there in 1603, Spaniards massacred many of the
    Chinese.

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  • I. Europeans and Asian Commerce
  • C. The Dutch and British East India Companies
  • Organized monopolies that could make war
  • Dutch East India Company, 1602-1799
  • Sent almost a million Europeans to work in Asia
  • 4785 ships
  • Brought back 2.5 million tons of goods from Asia
  • Colonized what became Indonesia and Taiwan
  • British worked with Mughals in India in textile
    trade, because Dutch kept them out.
  • Carrying trade and bulk commodities
  • Trading posts became colonies.

8
  • I. Europeans and Asian Commerce
  • D. Asians and Asian Commerce
  • Limited European impact in Asia until 18th
    century
  • controlled little territory
  • China and India had nothing to fear.
  • Siam expelled French missionaries/colonists in
    1688.
  • Japan
  • initially (1550-1600) open, reflected internal
    strife daimyo lords and samurai warriors
  • Tokugawa Shogun united Japan (early 1600s) and
    closed it (1650-1850) expelled Christian
    missionaries, violent suppression of Japanese
    Christianity
  • Dutch (Calvinists) allowed to trade once per
    year.
  • Active Asians Chinese, Southeast Asian women,
    Armenians, and Indians

9
  • II. Silver and Global Commerce
  • Discovery of Bolivian and Japanese silver
    deposits in 1500s
  • Spanish American silver (85 of worlds silver)
    to Manila and then China
  • 1570s new tax law Chinese taxes paid in silver
  • Potosí (now in Bolivia) 160,000 people, most
    poor Native mine workers

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  • II. Silver and Global Commerce
  • E. Rise and fall of Spanish economy massive
    silver production led to inflation Spanish
    aristocrats no great entrepreneurs monopolies
    Catholicism did not welcome Jewish and Protestant
    merchants then silvers value dropped.
  • F. General crisis in 17th-century Europe
  • G. Japans silver management shoguns used silver
    profits to unify country allied with merchants
    to create market economy slowed birth rate
  • H. China Commercialization, specialization, and
    deforestation (south consumed half of forests)
  • I. China and India out-produced Europe Spaniards
    in Americas bought Chinese, not Spanish silk
    British bought Indian cottons

13
  • III. The World Hunt Fur in Global Commerce
  • North American and Siberian fur sources
  • European population growth and Little Ice Age
  • European goods (guns, pots, whiskey) traded for
    American furs Dutch in Hudson Valley French in
    St. Lawrence valley
  • Impact on Native American societies some were
    enriched, but alcohol and disease were
    devastating also led to brutal inter-tribal
    wars.
  • Siberian furs to Europe, China, and the Ottomans
  • Impact on Siberians disease, taxes, and
    hostage-taking also more Russians hunted and
    trapped.

14
Little Ice Age, 1550-1850
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  • IV. Commerce in People Atlantic Slave Trade
  • The Slave Trade in Context
  • Varieties of slaveries before 1500 Slavic and
    Africans were the slaves Muslims the merchants.
  • Uniqueness of slavery in the Americas
  • 12.5 million sent , 2 mill. died on the way
  • Primarily male, used for plantation agriculture
  • Slave status became hereditary
  • Slaves had no rights
  • Slaves were racially distinct.
  • Sugar and other plantation crops tobacco and
    cotton

17
Why Africans?
  1. Great Dying Native American labor scarce
  2. Europeans affected by tropical environment and
    diseases
  3. Plantation owners looked to Africa,
    geographically close
  4. Portuguese had already discovered the existing
    African slave markets
  5. Pope sanctioned the slavery of Muslims and
    pagans.
  6. Racism Europeans inherited some aspects of
    Islamic racism and developed their own racism.

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  • IV. Commerce in People The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • B. The Slave Trade in Practice
  • African slave traders Europeans did not become
    slave raiders in Africa they waited on the
    coast.
  • European and Indian goods to African consumers
    African slave traders exchanged slaves for
    weapons, cowry shells, Indian cotton textiles.
  • Where did the slaves come from? Prisoners of war,
    debtors, criminals, main sources were West Coast
    from Mauritania to Angola.
  • No pan-African identity at the time.

20
  • IV. Commerce in People The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • C. Consequences The Impact of the Slave Trade
    in Africa
  • 1. Negative demographic and economic impact
  • 2. Corrupting effect
  • 3. Rising labor demands on women and polygamy
  • 4. New opportunities for women
  • 5. Options and choices for African states
    Africans could opt out Benin did not engage in
    slave trade, while neighbor Dahomey did.

21
  • V. Reflections Economic GlobalizationThen and
    Now
  • Similarities with the past but our lives are
    different
  • How old is globalization?
  • What is different about globalization today?
  • Globalization tied to empire and slavery

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