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World War I 1914-1918

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World War I 1914-1918 Causes of the war Technology of the war Military techniques / Battles War at Home Total War US / Russia and the end of the war – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I 1914-1918


1
World War I 1914-1918
  • Causes of the war
  • Technology of the war
  • Military techniques / Battles
  • War at Home Total War
  • US / Russia and the end of the war

2
Traditional European Rules of War
  • 1. A country must declare war before attacking
    another country.
  • 2. Each side must wear uniforms or identify
    themselves to each other before attacking.
    Soldiers wearing an enemy uniform will be shot as
    a spy.

3
Traditional European Rules of War
  • 3. Commanding officers should not be targeted
  • 4. Civilians, Surrendering Soldiers and Medical
    Personnel will not be attacked.

4
Traditional European Rules of War
  • 5. Hand to Hand combat is honorable, shooting
    from a distance is cowardly
  • 6. Soldiers must be given the opportunity to
    surrender honorably.

5
Roots of War
6
Long Term Causes
  • Nationalism-
  • Deep Devotion to Ones Nation
  • Competition and Rivalry developed between
    European nations for territory and markets
  • (Example France and Germany- Alsace-Lorraine)

7
Long Term Causes
  • Militarism-
  • Glorifying Military Power
  • Keeping a large standing army prepared for war
  • Arms race for military technology

8
Long Term Causes
  • Imperialism-
  • European competition for colonies
  • Quest for colonies often almost led to war
  • Imperialism led to rivalry and mistrust amongst
    European nations

9
Long Term Causes
  • Alliance System-
  • Designed to keep peace in Europe, instead pushed
    continent towards war
  • Many Alliances made in secret
  • By 1907 two major alliances Triple Alliance and
    Triple Entente

10
The Two Sides
  • Triple Alliance
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Italy
  • Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Triple Entente
  • England
  • France
  • Russia
  • Allied Powers
  • England, France, Russia, United States, Italy,
    Serbia, Belgium, Switzerland

11
Leaders
  • Triple Alliance
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany)
  • Franz Joseph I
  • (Austria-Hungary)
  • Vittorio Orlando
  • (Italy)
  • Triple Entente
  • David Lloyd George
  • (England)
  • Raymond Poincare
  • (France)
  • Czar Nicholas II (Russia)

12
Major Colonies
  • Triple Entente
  • France- Vietnam, Parts of Africa
  • England- Africa, Australia, Hong Kong, India,
    Canada, S. America
  • Triple Alliance
  • Germany- Africa, Parts of Asia

13
Short-Term Cause
  • June 28th 1914
  • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

14
Summer of 1914 Triple Entente/Triple Alliance
Actions
  • July 23rd Austria Hungary Presents Serbia with an
    ultimatum
  • July 28th Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
  • July 29th Russia Mobilizes its troops
  • August 1, 1914 Germany mobilizes troops.

15
Summer of 1914 Triple Entente/Triple Alliance
Actions
  • August 2nd Germany declares war on Russia Germany
    invades Poland and Luxemburg, invasion of France
    starts
  • August 3 Germany declares war on France
  • August 4 Germany declares war on Belgium and
    invades it,
  • August 4England declares war on Germany
  • August 5 Austria declares war on Russia and
    Great Britain

16
Who Declared War on Who?
  • Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia
  • Russia Declares War on Austria Hungary
  • Germany Declares War on Russia
  • Germany Declares War on France
  • England Declares War on Germany and Austria
    Hungary

17
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18
  • By the end of 1914, not only Europe was at war,
    but also all of Europes colonies in Asia, Africa
    and South America.

19
Modern Warfare
20
The Schlieffen Plan
  • The German plan against France was to rush into
    the country as fast as possible
  • The Machine Gun stopped this plan

21
Trench Warfare
  • Both sides dug long trenches that faced each
    other. The trenches ran for miles.
  • From time to time, one side would attempt to
    cross the No-Mans Land the area in between the
    trenches.
  • Stalemate caused both the Central Powers and
    Allied Powers to be stuck in war for 4 total
    years
  • Trench warfare made WWI extend from a few months
    of fighting to four years of fighting

22
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23
French Soldiers Attacking a German Trench
24
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25
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26
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27
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28
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29
A Multi-Front War
30
The Great War Western Front
  • Germans, Austria-Hungarians vs. French, British
    and later Americans
  • Germany develops the Schlieffen Plan
  • Battle of the Marne (1914- German Defeat)
  • Trench Warfare on the Western Front

31
Western Front Battles
  • Battle of Verdun
  • Ten months long
  • French and German armies.
  • Estimated 540,000 French and 430,000 German
    casualties
  • No strategic advantages were gained for either
    side.
  • Battle of Somme
  • English and French vs Germany
  • Six months of fighting
  • Five miles of advancement for Allies
  • 1 million men killed

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vy79-PJt-YzE
(4050)
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vKPT1MKOP8TQ
(Somme)
32
A Multi-Front War
33
Eastern Front
  • Russians and Serbs vs. Germans and
    Austria-Hungarians
  • War more mobile but still a stalemate
  • Russias disadvantages
  • Not Industrialized
  • Short on Supplies
  • Russias advantage
  • People

34
Eastern Front Battles
  • Battle of Tannenberg
  • August 1914- First major eastern battle.
  • Russia was badly defeated and pushed back.
  • Russia lost millions of men against Germany,
    undersupplied, under gunned

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vyB-Ituc3MRQ
35
Other Fronts
  • Japan, Australia, India join Allies
  • Ottoman Turks, Bulgaria join Central Powers
  • Gallipoli Campaign in the Ottoman Empire
  • Battles occur in Africa and Asia for Colonial
    Possessions

36
Russia Exits the War
  • In March 1917, Nicholas II abdicates his throne,
  • The Russian Duma continues to fight.
  • In October 1917 Lenin and the Bolsheviks take
    command The Soviet Union is created.
  • March 1918 Soviets and Germans sign the Treaty
    of Brest-Litovsk, ending the war in the East.

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vjtRQ6lOGdec
37
TechnologyChemical Weapons
  • WWI was the first major war to use chemical
    weapons
  • Mustard Gas and Chlorine Gas were the two most
    popular weapons They caused suffocation,
    blindness, and death

38
  • Soldiers would protect themselves using Gas Masks

39
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40
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41
New TechnologyGuns
  • The Machine Gun
  • It was used by both sides, hundreds of rounds a
    minute could be shot by one person.

42
TechnologyAirpower
  • Both sides used aircraft for observation, limited
    bombing, and air battles
  • Airplanes were slow, clumsy, and unreliable,
  • The most famous German pilot was Baron von
    Richthofen (The Red Baron)

43
Manfred von Richthofen Red Baron
Dog Fighting Flying tactic in WWI
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vaxSyUyfKUW4
44
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45
TechnologyTanks
46
TechnologyTanks
47
TechnologyFlame Throwers
48
US claims Neutrality
  • I didnt raise my boy to be a soldier
  • I brought him up to be my pride and joy
  • Who dares to place a musket on his shoulder,
  • To shoot some other mothers darling boy?

49
TechnologyThe U-boat (Submarine)
  • Germanys secret weapon during the war
  • Sank dozens of British ships, controlled the
    oceans.

50
Why would the British think the U-boat was
breaking the rules of War ?
51
US Road to War
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vRCrzaC4aLPg
(U-boats)
  • British Blockade
  • did not allow products to leave or enter Germany
  • German U-Boat Response
  • counter to blockade, destroy all boats headed
    for British shores

52
Bell RingerUS Road to War
  • May 7, 1915
  • Sinking of the Lusitania
  • 15
  • 120
  • 1,100
  • 1,900

Explain how these numbers are related?
53
US Road to War
  • May 7th 1915
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

54
1916 Presidential ElectionAnd the Winner is
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • - Internationalist!
  • Because
  • he kept us out of the war

55
US Road to WarThe Last Straw
  • Zimmerman Note

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vGedy8LwQTaw
56
US Declares War
  • Senate Declares War April 4th 1917
  • House of Representatives Declares War April 6th
    1917
  • Wilsons reasoning for War make the world Safe
    for Democracy (Pg 291)
  • Isolationist not happy!
  • Interventionist Happy!

57
War on the Homefront
  • World War I as a Total War
  • All Resources devoted to homefront
  • Govt took over factories to make Military goods
  • All had to work (Women took place of men in
    factories)
  • Rationing- limit consumption of resources/goods
    necessary for the war effort
  • Propaganda- one-sided information to keep support
    for the war

58
PropagandaUS
https//www.youtube.com/watch?v6k9XZB6O26w (
Over There)
59
PropagandaGreat Britain
60
PropagandaGermany
Go on soldier! And fulfill your duty! Christ, the
good shepherd watches over his flock. Our Father
in heaven, hallowed be your name, Your kingdom
come, your will be done, on earth as it is in
Heaven.
61
Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1
  • Great Migration. 1916 1919 ? 70,000
  • War industries work.
  • Enlistment in segregated units.(Jim Crow Laws in
    Service)

62
1917 Selective Service Act
  • 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the
    end of 1918.
  • 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw
    active combat).
  • 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated
    units.
  • 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts,
    messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

Conscientious objectors people who moral or
religious beliefs forbid them to fight in war
63
Council of National Defense
  • War Industries Board (WIB) Bernard Baruch
    influential wall street broker who reported to
    the President and regulated all war related
    industries.
  • Committee on Public Information (CPI) George
    Creel
  • Educate the public about the causes and nature
    of war
  • Used Propaganda to influence and persuade
    Americans
  • Food Administration Herbert Hoover
  • Railroad Administration William McAdoo
  • National War Labor Board W. H.Taft
    Frank P. Walsh

64
True Sons of Freedom
https//www.youtube.com/watch?v kk46pKnoSbQ (AA
in WWI)
65
Appeal to Womenas HomemakersRATIONING!Page
295Thinking Critically Questions 1-2
66
Munitions Work
67
The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!
68
Women Used In Recruitment
Hello, Big Boy!
69
Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds
70
The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World
71
YWCA The Blue Triangle
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vZMCOzuE1Lvo
(Women in WWI)
72
Read page 300
Attacks on Civil Liberties
73
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
Espionage Act 1917 - forbade actions that
obstructed recruitment or efforts to
promote insubordination in the military.
- ordered the Postmaster General to
remove Leftist materials from the mail.
- fines of up to 10,000 and/or up to 20
years in prison.
74
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
Sedition Act 1918 - it was a crime to speak
against the purchase of war bonds or
willfully utter, print, write or publish any
disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive
language about this form of US Govt., the US
Constitution, or the US armed forces or to
willfully urge, incite, or advocate any
curtailment of production of things
necessary or essential to the prosecution of
the warwith intent of such curtailment to
cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution
of the war.
75
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
3Schenck v. US 1919 - in ordinary times the
mailing of the leaflets would have been
protected by the 1st Amendment. - BUT,
every act of speech must be judged acc. to
the circumstances in which it was spoken.
-The most stringent protection of free
speech would not protect a man in falsely
shouting fire in a theater and causing a
panic. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes - If an
act of speech posed a clear and present
danger, then Congress had the power to
restrain such speech.
76
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
Abrams v. US 1919 - majority ruling --gt
cited Holmes Clear and present danger
doctrine. - Holmes Brandeis dissented
The best test of truth is the power of
the thought to get itself accepted in
the competition of the market, denying
that a silly leaflet published by an
unknown man constituted such a
danger.
77
Woodrow Wilson War Address, 1917
78
We have no quarrel with the German people.
We have no feeling toward them but one of
sympathy and friendship. It was not upon their
impulse that their government acted in entering
this war. It was not with their previous
knowledge or approval. It was a war determined
upon as wars used to be determined upon in the
old, unhappy days when peoples were nowhere
consulted by their rulers and wars were provoked
and waged in the interest of dynasties or of
little groups of ambitious men who were
accustomed to use their fellow men as pawns and
tools. We are glad, now that we see the facts
with no veil of false pretense about them, to
fight thus for
79
  • the ultimate peace of the world and for the
    liberation of
  • its peoples, the German peoples included
  • for the rights of nations great and small and
    the privilege of
  • men everywhere to chose their way of life and of
    obedience.
  • The world must be made safe for democracy.
  • Its peace must be planted upon the tested
    foundations of
  • political liberty.
  • We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no
    conquest,
  • no dominion. We seek no indemnities for
    ourselves, no
  • material compensation for the sacrifices we shall
    freely make.
  • We are but one of the champions of the rights of
    mankind.

80
Wilson, War, and Peace
  • Convoy - a group of merchant vessels sailing
    together, with or without naval escort, for
    mutual security and protection (Why?)

81
Defining Americas War Goals
  • Receiving Mixed Messages

82
The Allies Struggle
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vGQUAW_CdBds
  • Russia exhausted on Eastern front war
    revolutions
  • Vladimir Lenin radical communist who overthrew
    Czar Nicholas II and gained control of Russia
  • October 1917 Lenin and the Bolsheviks take
    command The Soviet Union is created.
  • March 1918 Soviets and Germans sign the Treaty
    of Brest-Litovsk, ending the war in the East.

83
American enters the Front
  • Germany sends troops from Eastern to Western
    front
  • March of 1918 Germany begins a massive attack on
    France
  • John J. Pershing commander of American forces
    in Europe
  • Early 1918 Americans met Germans on Western
    Front
  • Allies fighting together
  • Britain France Italy Americans

84
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85
I shall always believe we could and ought to
have kept out of this war, House majority
leader Claude Kitchin, a Democrat from North
Carolina.
86
Ending the War (1918)The Tide Turns
  • German troops fatigued
  • US had 140,000 fresh troops
  • 2nd Battle of the Marne (June 1918)
  • Central Powers Crumble
  • Revolutions in Austria Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire surrenders
  • German soldiers mutiny, German public turns
    against Kaiser Wilhelm II

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vUamKIlTsKgA
87
Ending the War (1918)
  • Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates on November 9th 1918
  • 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month in
    1918 Germany agrees to a cease-fire
  • Cost of 338 billion dollars

88
The Somme American Cemetary, France
116,516 Americans Died
89
Casualties of War
90
Ending the WarThe Paris Peace Conference
  • Meeting of the Big Four at the Paris Peace
    Conference (Prime Ministers David Lloyd George of
    Great Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Georges
    Clemenceau of France, and President Woodrow
    Wilson)
  • Wilson Proposes his 14 points
  • Big Four create Treaty of Versailles
  • War Guilt Clause
  • Break up of German, Austrian, Russian and Ottoman
    Empire
  • Reparations
  • Legacy of bitterness and betrayal

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vKfnEy8FuElc
91
Effects of World War I
  • Before World War I feeling of optimism and
    progress of Human Kind
  • After the War feelings of pessimism
  • Return to isolationist ideas
  • New forms of Art, Literature, Philosophy and
    Science
  • Roaring 20s changing of American culture

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vy59wErqg4Xg
(crash course wrap up)
92
Homework Decision Point Page 308
  • Read pages 307-309
  • Read and complete Decision Point pg 308
  • Questions You Decide 1-3
  • Write Question and Answer

93
Bell Ringer - Map Skills12/15/14
  • Complete Map Skills
  • On page 307
  • Questions 2-3
  • Write questions and answer

94
A Just or Unjust Peace
  • The Versailles Treaty

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vPxb3j6Ps44c
(American legacy of WWI) -105
95
Key clauses of the Versailles Treaty
  • War guilt and Reparations Money paid to
    countries harmed by war to repair nations
  • Dismemberment of Russian,
  • German and Austro-
  • Hungarian Empires
  • League of Nations

96
America Becomes an Imperial Power
Wilsons Fourteen Points January 1918
1. Abolition of secret treaties 2. Freedom of
the seas 3. Free Trade 4. Disarmament 5.
Adjustment of colonial claims (decolonization and
national self-determination) 6. Russia to be
assured independent development foreign powers
to withdraw from Russian territory 7.
Restoration of Belgium to prewar independence 8.
Province of Alsace-Lorraine returned to France
from Germany 9. Italian borders redrawn on lines
of nationality 10. Autonomous development for
the people of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire
11. Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and other
Balkan states to be de-occupied and granted
integrity, with Serbia given access to the
Adriatic Sea 12. The Turkish people of the
former Ottoman Empire to comprise an independent
nation autonomous development for national
groups within the former Empire 13. Establishment
of an independent Poland with access to the sea
14. Establishment of a multilateral
international association of nations to enforce
the peace (League of Nations)
97
Fourteen Points - January 8, 1918
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Free trade
  • Disarmament
  • Self-determination
  • League of Nations

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vF5mkjDawFBI
98
Balance of Power View
99
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100
A Starting Point
101
Self-Determination right of the people of their
own nation to determine their own type of
government
  • Applying the American experience to the world
  • Britain had tutored colonies/now tutoring
    Philippines
  • Enlarging Monroe Doctrine/Roosevelt Corollary
  • Assimilation of immigrants
  • White men should be in charge

102
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103
(No Transcript)
104
(No Transcript)
105
(No Transcript)
106
Internationalists View
There must be, not a balance of power, but a
community of power not organized rivalries,
but an organized common peace. Wilson, Peace
Without Victory, 1917
107
Competing Visions of US role in the world
  • Wilsons internationalist vision
  • Balance of power/unilateral advocates
  • Isolationists
  • Moderates like bits of them all

108
Need for Unilateral Action
  • The United States should render service of being
    a force for good in the world of her own free
    will.
  • Alliances, military intervention, moral suasion

109
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110
(No Transcript)
111
(No Transcript)
112
Isolationists

113
Avoid The Insidious Wiles of Foreign
Influence and Entangling Alliances
Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence
the attention of a free people ought to be
constantly awake since history and experience
prove, that foreign influence is one of the most
baneful foes of Republican Government. --
Farewell Address, September 17, 1796
114
Wilsons Answer
  • By rejecting alliances in favor of collective
    security, meets Washingtons objectives
  • This project of the League of Nations is a great
    policy of disentanglement.

115
Article X of the League Covenant
  • The Members of the League undertake to respect
    and preserve as against external aggression the
    territorial integrity and existing political
    independence of all the members of the League.
    In case of any such aggression or in case of any
    threat or danger of such aggression the Council
    shall advise upon the means by which this
    obligation shall be fulfilled.

116
Room for Compromise? Language respecting
Congressional authority, national sovereignty
117
Strangling his own childWhy doesnt Wilson
Compromise?
  • Initial consideration
  • Strategy
  • President vs. Congress in setting foreign policy
  • Impaired mentally
  • Isolation from political realities

118
Impact of WWI on US Foreign Policy
  • Disarmament and Dollars in 1920s.
  • Outlawing War
  • Neutrality Laws in 1930s.
  • Ideological foundation for 20th century US
    Foreign Policy

119
Wilsonianism Its Lasting Legacy On US Foreign
Policy Goals
  • National self-determination national sovereignty
    and democratic self-government
  • Free trade spreading capitalism
  • Collective Security
  • US leadership needed to build a better world
  • Good for US Good for the world

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vPg5LWHQYIrY (BBC
WWI Wrap up)
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