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The evidence provided by the sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum for Everyday life: Water supply and sanitation.

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Title: The evidence provided by the sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum for Everyday life: Water supply and sanitation.


1
The evidence provided by the sources from Pompeii
and Herculaneum for Everyday life Water supply
and sanitation.
Homepage
  • Distribution of the Water
  • Water access points
  • Drainage and Sewage

Nicholas Wray
Click on this symbol at any page to return to
this homepage
2
Distribution of the Water.
  • Many houses in Pompeii had a reliable
    source of running water. The water was supplied
    from the Aqueduct which supplied the city with
    water as the water came down form the springs in
    the Apennine mountains and went into water
    storage tanks around the city where then they
    were distributed through Pompeii through lead
    pipes. In Herculaneum it was the same kind of
    distribution to Pompeii but in a different layout
    because of the cities population and location.

Water distribution in Herculaneum
Map of Water Distribution in Pompeii
Water Towers
Aqueducts of Pompeii and Herculaneum
3
Drainage and Sewage
Throughout Pompeii and Herculaneum there were
drains to carry the water after it had been used,
Sewers had also been built in the two cities so
anything which went down the drain would end up
there. Both cities had guttering and drains and
toilets available for the public and private use.
The drainage and sewage did however vary in
Herculaneum as Herculaneum was on the ocean and
had easier access to water. Both towns had
guttering and public toilets provided and lead
pipes distributing used water from the drains or
gutters however the towns similarities are
different when it comes to their sewage systems.
Lead pipes in Pompeii
Drainage and sewage in Herculaneum
Toilets in Pompeii
Drainage and guttering in Pompeii
4
Water Access points
  • After the water was distributed there were
    various points for the water to be accessed from
    for the general public these locations included
    the public fountains and wells which was the main
    source of water access for them, Public baths
    which was a strong user of the towns water supply
    and for more wealthier people they had their own
    water access points as displayed in the House of
    the Vettii and the House of Octavius Quartio.

Public Fountains
Public Baths
House of Vetti
Springs
5
Aqueduct of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
In Pompeii the water flowed from the aqueduct
into a brick holding tank which was named the
Castellum Aquae which was built on one of the
highest points in the town. From the castellum,
water was gravity fed through the 3 large pipes
to different parts of the town.
6
Water Towers
  • There are many water towers (or water castles)
    throughout Pompeii and Herculaneum. These towers
    are used to collect, store and dispersed
    rainwater .
  • There were approximately 12 in Pompeii which
    stood at 6 meters tall and had a lead tank on the
    top with lead pipes running in and out of the
    water tower.
  • At the time of the eruption the waterworks in
    Pompeii and Herculaneum were being repaired
    possibly being damaged by the earthquakes in the
    months before.

7
Springs
  • Following the completion of the Augustan Aqueduct
    both Pompeii and Herculaneum gained access with
    the water supplied from the springs of Acquaro
    located some 26 kilometers away.

8
Lead Pipes
  • After the distribution of water in Pompeii the
    water was redistributed through lead pipes. The
    water was distributed through three large lead
    mains which ran under the footpath which branched
    off the main lines. Then smaller pipes fed the
    water into other distribution structures in the
    shape of pillars which were usually constructed
    near the cross roads.

9
Public Baths
  • Public baths where a large party of day to day
    life in Pompeii and Herculaneum. The baths
    contributed much to the cleanliness of the
    population which was provides with the copious
    water from the aqueduct. Many of the Baths in the
    cities were a form of political propaganda as
    they were built by politicians for the public and
    some were for private use. In the Public baths
    hot and cold water was supplied and this was done
    by the water coming in from the reservoir and
    then separated into three frigidariums which were
    Hot , Cold, and Tepid. For some of the residents
    on Pompeii and Herculaneum visiting the Baths
    became a daily occurrence.

10
Public Fountains
  • - Public fountains were one of the most
    important features of the street scene in
    Pompeii.
  • - Although only the wealthiest residents of
    Pompeii had access to water sources in their
    houses, the rest of the population of the relied
    on the public fountains to gain access to their
    water supply.
  • - So far 42 public fountains have been
    excavated.
  • As pictured a tourist observing a Fountain
    in Pompeii as it is a major tourist destination
    today

11
Toilets in Pompeii and Herculaneum
  • Toilets or also known as Latrines were a wooden
    seat with a whole in it over a pit.
  • However for more wealthier homes piped water
    flushed the pit.
  • In some buildings residents would of shared the
    same latrines as it is evident in the houses of
    Painted Capitals in Pompeii and the House of
    Stags is Herculaneum .
  • There were also public Latrines situated in both
    Pompeii and Herculaneum

Credit Brennan and Lazer
12
House of Vettii and House of Octavius Quartio.
  • While most upper-class houses in Pompeii and
    Herculaneum. had a fountain to supply their own
    water there were more wealthier houses which had
    much more.
  • -The House of Vettii consisted of 14
    interconnected fountains in the peristyle.
  • - The House of Octavius Quartio (also known as
    the House of Loreio Tiburtino) featured vast
    waterworks in the house including spouting jets,
    gushing waterfalls, channels, pool, and a
    nymphaeum (monumental fountain dedicated to the
    nymphs with niches in the form of grotto)

Credit to Bradley
13
Water Distribution in Herculaneum
  • Water distribution was very similar to its larger
    neighbor Pompii but catered to a smaller
    population.
  • Public fountains were evident in Herculaneum as 3
    were excavated.
  • Herculaneum had Suburban baths which were
    financed by Macas Nonius Balbus it is described
    as (an elegant and graceful complex which would
    not have been out of place among the magnificent
    buildings of room) Source Bradley

14
Drainage and Sewage in Herculaneum
  • Unlike its larger neighboring city Herculaneum
    had a working sewage system and the drainage and
    sewage was an easier process as it was on the
    ocean and had easier methods as it was on sea
    level and Pompeii was on an elevation.

15
Drainage and Guttering in Pompeii
  • Pompeii was known for its fashioning gutters
    which lead to private houses.
  • Many houses in Pompeii featured anatrium and
    open-roof design as the rain came down the tiles
    it ran into a rainwater tank.
  • For a while Pompeii had no sewage system as the
    guttering was the sewage line as waste and used
    water were just thrown in the gutter.

16
Map of Water distribution in Pompeii
  • This source is a map which presents Pompeii's
    water system at the time of 79AD. It presents how
    there were either water castles or distribution
    towers on almost each city block which presents
    how vast Pompeii's distribution of water was to
    its residents. It presents the main water line
    constructed though the main district of Pompeii
    as it is close to Baths and fountains the 2
    factors which requires water supply continuously.

Map Source Roman Water Supply Handbook by Larry
W. Mays
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