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The Sun and the Solar System


The Sun and the Solar System Chapter 26 24.3 Sun s Size, Heat and Structure Diameter= 1,400,000 km or 868,000 miles More than 3x the distance of Earth to moon More ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Sun and the Solar System

The Sun and the Solar System
  • Chapter 26

24.3 Suns Size, Heat and Structure
  • Diameter 1,400,000 km or 868,000 miles
  • More than 3x the distance of Earth to moon
  • More than 1 million Earths could fit in sun
  • Energy
  • All stars get their energy from fusion
  • Fusion- combining of nuclei of lighter elements
    to form a heavier element
  • Star is place of intense heat and pressure
  • Plasma- 4th state of matter consisting of charged
    particles (positively charged ions/ negatively
    charged electrons)

  • Mass before is greater than mass after
  • Missing mass is converted to energy

Suns Layers
  • Core hydrogen and helium in a plasma state
  • Radiation zone plasma- temp. range 8,000,000-
    2,000,000 C)
  • Convection zone rising and falling currents of
    plasma that carry energy to the suns surface

Suns Layers cont
  • Photosphere visible surface of sun
  • Granules- tops of convection currents
  • 6,000 C
  • Chromosphere inner layer of suns atmosphere
  • 20,000 C (reddish)
  • Solar prominences
  • Corona outer atmosphere
  • 1,000,000 to 3,000,000 C
  • Examine the sun at different wavelengths.

Features on the Sun
  • AU- astronomical unit- distance from sun to Earth
    (150 million km)
  • Sunspots- dark spots on photosphere
  • Dark because surrounding photosphere is hotter
    and brighter
  • Magnetic field is 1000x stronger than surrounding
  • Move from left to right
  • Evidence that the sun rotates
  • Cycle of about 11 years

Magnetic Field
Solar Wind and Magnetic Storms
  • Solar wind- stream of electrically charged
    particles from corona
  • coronal holes- large openings
  • Solar flares- most explosive feature on the sun!
  • Increase in sunspots increase in solar flares
  • Earths magnetic field deflects solar winds
  • Auroras- displays of color and light appearing in
    upper atmosphere
  • Magnetic storms occur when more particles are
    added to constant solar wind from corona
  • may disrupt radio communications

22.1 History of S.S.
  • Geocentric- Earth-centered model
  • Celestial sphere that surrounded Earth
  • Used constellations for calendar
  • Planets closer to Earth than stars
  • Retrograde motion- moved eastward, then westward
    for a few weeks

Important People
  • Greek astronomer in 2nd century AD
  • Puzzled by retrograde motion
  • Developed a system to predict planetary position
  • Planets on epicycles- small circular orbits
  • Deferent is the larger circular orbit
  • Retrograde Motion

Important People
Nicolaus Copernicus
  • Polish astronomer (1473- 1543)
  • Developed heliocentric model- sun- centered
  • Retrograde motion appears as Earth overtakes Mars
  • Retrograde Motion

Important People
Tycho Brahe
  • 16th century Danish noblemen
  • Studied movements of planets in their orbits
  • Very precise measurements without aide of
  • Passed away before he could apply data

Important People
Johannes Kepler
  • German (1571-1630) Tychos assistant
  • Laws of planetary motion
  • 1st- planets travel in elliptical orbits with sun
    at one foci
  • 2nd- equal area law- a line connecting Earth to
    the sun will pass over equal area of space in
    equal times
  • 3rd- harmonic law- the period (P) of a planet
    squared is equal to the cube of its mean distance
    (D) from the sun, or P2 D3
  • Kepler's Laws with animation

Important People
Isaac Newton
  • English scientist and mathematician (1642- 1727)
  • Developed explanation for what kept the planets
    in motion
  • 3 laws of motion and law of gravitation
  • 1st law- an object will move forever in a
    straight line at the same speed unless some
    external force changes its direction or speed
  • Law of gravitation- every mass exerts a force of
    attraction on every other mass, and the strength
    of that force is proportional to each of the
    masses and inversely proportional to the distance
    between them

Important People
Galileo Galilei
  • Italian scientist (1564-1642)
  • With the aide of the first known telescope he
    discovered the following
  • Four Galilean moons of Jupiter
  • Planets are circular disks, not just points of
  • Venus has phases just like the moon
  • The moons surface was not smooth
  • The sun has sunspots, or dark regions