Capitalizing on Multi-element Interactions through Balanced Nutrition a Pathway to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency in China, India, and U.S. Agriculture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Capitalizing on Multi-element Interactions through Balanced Nutrition a Pathway to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency in China, India, and U.S. Agriculture

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Title: Capitalizing on Multi-element Interactions through Balanced Nutrition a Pathway to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency in China, India, and U.S. Agriculture


1
Capitalizing on Multi-element Interactions
through Balanced Nutrition a Pathway to Improve
Nitrogen Use Efficiency in China, India, and U.S.
Agriculture
Paul Fixen Sr. Vice President for N. American Programs, PPI
Ji-Yun Jin Director of China Program, PPIC
K.N. Tiwari Director of India Program, PPIC
Mark Stauffer Sr. Vice President for International Programs, PPI President, PPIC
2
Recent book chapters on nutrient interactions and
balanced nutrition
Aulakh and Malhi. 2004. Fertilizer N use
efficiency as influenced by interactions of N
with other nutrients.
Chapter 13
Aulakh and Malhi. 2005. Interactions of N with
other nutrients and water effect on crop yield
and quality, nutrient use efficiency, carbon
sequestration and environmental pollution
Vol. 86 (in press)
3
Outline
  • Background on interactions
  • Research examples of magnitude of impact
  • China
  • India
  • U.S.
  • Assess current status of balanced nutrition in
    the three countries
  • Summary and observations

4
and the recognition that N efficiency is a
function of the whole system, not just what we do
with the N inputs of the system
  • The appeal of balanced nutrition is a promise to
  • Reduce the potential for N loss
  • Increase productivity farmer profitability
  • the win win

Galloway Cowling, 2002 UNEP, 2003
5
The zone of balanced nutrition narrows as yields
climb
Zone of X Insufficiency or Y Excess
Balanced Nutrition
Zone of X Excess or Y Insufficiency
Crop yield or nutrient (X) uptake
Sumner Farina, 1986
Soil nutrient level (X) or tissue nutrient ratio
(X/Y)
6
Controllable growth factors that interact with N
Cultural factors Water supply Plant
population Cultivar Tillage intensity Cropping
sequence Pest pressure Etc.
Other nutrients Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Zinc
Etc.
  • Our focus
  • Usually easily controlled
  • Globally most likely to limit growth and
    recovery of N

7
Keeping nutrient interactions in perspective
  • Practices of critical importance for optimizing
    efficiency of a specific N fertilizer or manure
  • proper rate,
  • applied at the proper time,
  • using the proper placement
  • If any are inappropriate for the site or season,
    efficiency will be reduced regardless of status
    of other nutrients

8
Mechanisms of interaction between N and other
nutrients
  • Increase in biomass production and potential for
    N assimilation (Law of the Minimum)
  • Increased depth of rooting and N absorption
  • Enhanced long-distance transport of nitrate
  • K enhancement of ammonium utilization
  • Stimulation of nitrate reductase activity
  • A multitude of physiological linkages

Studies show optimum levels of other nutrients
can result in greater biomass production per
unit of N supplied
9
Impact of regionalized balanced fertilization in
China (Yutian County)
Huang et al., 2002, 2003
10
Mean N recovery efficiency by crops over 17 years
in different soils of India
Rice, wheat
Maize, wheat
Rice
Wheat
Millet, maize, wheat
Maize, wheat
Nambiar, 1994
11
Influence of P fertilization on N recovery by
irrigated maize in Kansas, U.S.
12
Influence of soil test K level on fertilizer N
recovery by rain-fed maize in Ohio, US
Four-year average
Soil K, mg kg-1
13.1 t ha-1
10.5 t ha-1
Johnson
13
Winter wheat response to N and P application in
Manitoba, Canada
Grant et al., 1985
14
Summary of studies in China, India and U.S. where
N recovery efficiency was reported
241 site years
Treatment N Recovery,
Conventional or check 21
Balanced nutrition 54
Improvement 33
The real world potential for improving N
efficiency with balanced nutrition depends on the
level of imbalance currently present in the
cropping system the current frequency with
which farm use of non-N nutrients fails to meet
crop N needs.
15
Where are we with balanced nutrition in farm
fields?
  • Measurements of current on-farm efficiency
  • Fertilizer use ratios
  • Partial nutrient budgets
  • Soil nutrient supplying ability

16
N fertilizer recovery efficiency using on-farm
measurements
Crop Region Number of farms Avg N rate, kg/ha N Recovery,
Maize NC USA 56 103 37
Rice Asia-farmer Asia-researcher 179 179 117 112 31 40
Wheat India-poor weather India-good weather 23 21 145 123 18 49
Cassman et al., 2002
17
Fertilizer nutrient use ratios
NP2O5 NP2O5 NP2O5 NP2O5
Year China India U.S. World
1981/82 3.5 3.3 2.3 2.4
1991/92 2.7 2.4 2.7 2.7
2001/02 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.4
NK2O NK2O NK2O NK2O
1981/82 15.5 5.8 2.0 2.5
1991/92 8.5 5.9 2.3 3.3
2001/02 5.7 6.8 2.4 3.5
  • A function of crop mix and soil properties
  • Say nothing about nutrient adequacy

IFA, 2004
18
P and K nutrient use compared to estimated crop
removal
India (1998-99)
U.S. (1998-2000)
China (2000)
P2O5
130
57
88
F Fertilizer use M Manure R Crop removal
R/F100
Manure nutrient production unavailable for India
19
P and K supplying ability of soils
Phosphorus
95
71
47
20
Summary and observations
  • Reducing nutrient imbalance is a well-documented,
    systems-based means of improving N efficiency and
    increasing productivity in China, India and the
    U.S.
  • Partial nutrient budgets, soil fertility
    information, and current farmer practices suggest
    a good potential for increasing N efficiency with
    balanced nutrition
  • Balanced nutrition can only be accomplished when
    the supplemental nutrient needs of specific sites
    are known
  • Effective policies are most likely those that
    enable local site-specific approaches to
    management decisions rather than sweeping,
    nation-wide generalizations

21
Capitalizing on Multi-element Interactions
through Balanced Nutrition a Pathway to Improve
Nitrogen Use Efficiency in China, India, and U.S.
Agriculture
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