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Title: Hygiene as a science. Prophylactic direction of medicine. Methods of hygienic researches. Hygienic role of climate and weather, peculiarities of their influence to the health of people.


1
Hygiene as a science. Prophylactic direction of
medicine. Methods of hygienic researches.
Hygienic role of climate and weather,
peculiarities of their influence to the health of
people.
2
Hygiene is a science about preservation and
strengthening of public and individual health by
realization of preventive actions. There are two
ways to improve health of people -Protection
and improvement of an environment - Preservation
and increasing of resistibility of an organism.

3
The experience of modern medicine tests that
  • the professional competence of a doctor is formed
    by two kinds of medical knowledge and two basic
    methods of medical activity. The first kind of
    knowledge is prophylaxis of illnesses,
    preservation and improvement of population
    health. The second trend is treatment of
    diseases. The knowledge of hygiene allows a
    doctor of any specialty (therapeutist,
    pediatrician, surgeon, stomatologist) to
    implement correctly preventive measures, to
    increase health of population.

4
Among many diseases the following are allocated,
first of all
  • Occupational diseases and poisonings caused by
    pathogenic influence of conditions and factors of
    work
  • Illnesses connected with irrational nutrition
    (avitaminosis, obesity, etc.), with the use of
    substandard food (food poisonings, infections,
    etc.)
  • Diseases connected with the use of drinking
    water, not adequate to hygienic requirements on
    chemical and bacterial structure

5
(Con)
  • Illnesses arising from influence of radionuclides
    due to wrong organization of work with
    radioactive substances or pollution of the
    environment with them
  • The diseases of children and teenagers
    (underweight, disorders of locomotive system,
    etc.), caused by unfavorable conditions of
    training and education
  • (to be continued)

6
con
  • Illnesses of respiratory tract as a result of
    intensive pollution of atmospheric air
  • Infectious and parasite illnesses, occurring and
    spreading due to sanitary conditions of the
    environment
  • Illnesses connected with influence of unfavorable
    hygienic conditions of dwelling.

7
  • Beside that there is a large group of
    ecologically caused diseases allergy, malignant
    tumors, genetic and reproductive disorders, etc.

8
The main sections of Hygiene
  • Communal (municipal) Hygiene
  • Hygiene of Nutrition
  • Occupational Hygiene
  • Military Hygiene
  • Hygiene of Children and Adolescents
  • Psychohygiene
  • Personal Hygiene
  • Hygiene of Medical institutions

9
Etymology of the word Hygiene
  • Hygiene is a branch of medicine, which studies
    the influence of factors of the environment,
    living and working conditions on the population's
    health, creates hygienic norms and rules to
    preserve health, to increase working capacity and
    life span.

10
Sanitation
  • Sanitation is a practical appliance of hygiene in
    our life. Sanitary-Epidemiolo- gical Station is
    a service (governmental institution) which
    controls if hygienic norms are in use in our
    daily activity.

11
Etymology
  • The word "Hygiene" comes from the Greek word
    "Hygieinos", it means carrying health. According
    to Greek mythology God of medicine

12
History
  • Aesculapius had two daughters. The elder daughter
    was named Panacea. She initiated the therapeutic
    trend in medicine. The junior daughter was called
    Hygeia. She promoted prophylactic trend of
    medicine. The ancients honored Hygeia as Goddess
    of health. The well-known English scientist E.A.
    Park speaking of hygiene said "The main task of
    this science consists in making the human
    development the most perfective one, but a decay
    of his life the slowest one and his death the
    most remote one".

13
Nykolay I. Pyrogov said
  • I believe in Hygiene. The future of medicine
    belongs to prophylaxis, its a real progress of
    medical science.
  • Therapeutic medicine is a science about etiology,
    pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment of
    diseases. Hygiene is a science about health of
    healthy people. Because of this, there are two
    types of doctors attending doctors
    (therapeutists, surgeons, neurologists,
    obstetricians etc.) and doctors-hygienists, i.e.
    doctors who are engaged in prophylaxis.

14
  • obstetrics (functioning as sing.) the
    branch of medicine concerned with childbirth and
    the treatment of women before and after
    childbirth
  • sanatorium or sanitarium , -riums or -ria
    1) an institution for the medical care and
    recuperation of persons who are chronically ill
    2) a health resort 3) a room in a boarding school
    where sick pupils may be treated in isolation
    Etymology from New Latin, from Latin sanare to
    heal

15
There are also two kinds of medical
establishments
  • therapeutic ones (polyclinics, hospitals,
    clinics, therapeutic dispensaries) and
    prophylactic ones (sanitary-epidemiologic
    stations, sanatoriums and preventoriums,
    prophylactic dispensaries).

16
Kinds of prophylaxis are
  • Primary prophylaxis
  • Secondary prophylaxis
  • Tertiary prophylaxis

17
Primary prophylaxis
  • Is carried out individually among healthy
    people. Its aim is to prevent the disease. This
    is the highest form of prophylaxis. It includes
    hygienic and special measures.

18
Hygienic measures
  • mean a healthy way of living and carrying out
    prophylactic inoculations (specific prophylaxis).

19
Special measures
  • are carried out by doctors, who are experts in
    their own field, with the purpose of prevention
    of some kinds of disease.

20
Secondary prophylaxis
  • is carried out among persons, who are falling
    ill, on the individual base. Its aim is to
    prevent the relapses, complications and
    transition from acute state to chronic form of
    disease.
  • N.B. An acute disease is easier to treat than a
    chronic one.

21
The categories of chronic disease are
  • 1) illnesses without symptoms
  • 2) chronic illnesses, which are growing
    progressively worse
  • 3) invalidating chronic illnesses
  • 4) incurable hereditary diseases

22
Water as a factor of health. Hygienic
significance of water. Requirements to quality
of drinking water. Hygiene of water supply.
Methods of water quality improvement.
23
Main functions of water
  • Physiological
  • - for assimilation, dissimilation, resorption,
    elimination, and thermoregulation
  • - solvent for nutritious substances
  • - as plastic material
  • Sanitary
  • Household

24
Main functions of water (con)
  • Industrial, agricultural
  • Health-improving
  • Recreational

25
Physiological significance of water
  • Fatty tissue consists of 30 of water.
  • White matter of brain and liver contains 70 of
    water,
  • skin about 72, muscles - 76.
  • About 79 of water is in heart and 83 in
    kidneys. Grey matter of brain contains 86 of
    water and eyes - 90.

26
Physiological significance of water
  • Blood and lymph are water solutions of complex
    chemical compound.
  • The human body consists of 65 - 70 of water on
    an average.

27
Kinds of water supply
  • Decentralized or local
  • Centralized or water pipe (hot and cold running
    water, tap water)

28
Water hygienic requirements
  • Water should have perfect organoleptic and
    physical qualities
  • Water should have optimal chemical composition
  • Water should not decrease biological value of
    food
  • Water should not be hard
  • Water should not include radiological and toxic
    substances (no higher than maximum concentration
    limit)
  • Water should not include pathogenic germs.

29
Water transmitted diseases
  • 1. Bacterial infectious diseases (cholera,
    typhoid, salmonellosis, dysentery, paratyphoid,
    brucellosis, plague, leptospirosis, etc.)
  • 2. Viral diseases (viral hepatitis,
    poliomyelitis, enterovirus diseases)
  • 3. Protozoan diseases (balantidiasis, amebic
    dysentery)
  • 4. Helminthiasises (ascaridiasis,
    diphyllobothriasis, schistosomiasis, etc.)
  • 5. Diseases due to water chemical composition

30
Diseases due to water chemical composition
  • As a result of high water hardness (urolithiasis,
    nephrolithiasis, podagra) or low water hardness
    (cardio-vascular diseases, osteoporosis)
  • As a result of high quantity of nitrogenated
    compounds (hydro-nitrate (well-water)
    methemoglobinemia)
  • biogeochemical endemia (caries, fluorosis,
    endemic goitre, molybdenic arthritis, Kashin-Bek
    disease (strontium endemic osteoarthritis), boric
    enteritis)
  • Presence of toxic chemical substances ("ungulate
    disease" (As), lead poisoning (Pb pipes),
    Minomata disease (Hg), Cd poisoning)

31
Zones of sanitary maintenance
  • The zone of sanitary maintenance of water supply
    source is specific territory concerned with
    waterworks intake
  • 1. Clozed zone - includes area of water source
    and main waterworks intakes. This zone is
    enclosed and supervised
  • 2. Restricted zone includes area of water source
    up and down stream (some kilometers)
  • 3. Observational zone (tens km)

32
Vinnytsya National Medical University Hygiene
and Ecology Department ?OPIC OF THE
LECTURE NUTRITION AS A FACTOR OF HEALTH.
SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATIONS OF RATIONAL NUTRITION.
HYGIENIC SIGNIFICANCE OF SEPARATE COMPONENTS OF
NUTRITION. HYGIENIC FOUNDATIONS OF ALIMENTARY
DISEASES FOOD POISONINGS PREVENTION. Lecturer
Krystyna Zaytseva,PhD, Assistant Professor of
Hygiene Ecology Department
33
Outline of the lecture
  • 1. Scientific bases of balanced nutrition
    /??rminological review/
  • 1.1. Concept of Adequate Nutrition
  • 1.2. Concept of Balanced Nutrition
  • 1.3. Concept of Rational Nutrition
  • 1.4. Biomedical Significance of Food (Functions
    of food)
  • 1.5. The basic kinds of nutrition
  • 1.6. Biological action of food
  • 1.7. Classification of Nutritive Substances (The
    basic kinds of food substances)
  • 1.8. Classification of the Food Products
    (Aliments) by origin
  • 2. Hygienic significance of separate components
    of nutrition
  • 2.1. Biomedical Value of Proteins. Diseases due
    to Protein Insufficiency Excess
  • 2.2. Biomedical value of Fats. Diseases due to
    Fat Insufficiency Excess
  • 2.3. Biomedical value of Carbohydrates. Diseases
    due to Carbohydrate Insufficiency Excess.
  • 2.4. Biomedical value of Minerals. Classification
    of Minerals.
  • 2.5. Biomedical value of Vitamins. Classification
    of Vitamins.
  • 3. Sanitary-and-Hygienic Expertise of Food
    Products (Aliments)
  • 4. Hygienic foundations of Alimentary Diseases
    Prevention and Food Poisonings Prevention.
  • 4.1 Classification of Alimentary Diseases Food
    Poisonings
  • 4.2. The basic directions of Alimentary Diseases
    Food Poisonings Preventions

34
LECTURE 4
  • Labor and health. Occupational Hygiene and
    Occupational Physiology. Classifica-tion of
    harmful factors of the working process and
    industrial environment. Hygienic characteristic
    of physical, chemical and biological factors of
    industrial environment.

35
Hygiene of labour - is a branch
  • of prophylactic medicine that studies conditions
    and character of the work, their influence on the
    health and functional state of the human it
    develops scientific basis of hygienic regulation
    of factors of working environment and production.

36
Classification of harmful occupational factors
  • Physical factors
  • Chemical factors
  • Biological factors
  • Not correct organisation of work (too intensive
    work, absence of breaks in work )
  • Bad sanitary conditions of work (bad ventilation,
    bad lighting, absence of toilet, absence of hot
    and cold water)

37
Physical factors
  • microclimate (temperature, humidity, air
    movement, temperature radiation)
  • nonionizing radiation (electrostatic field,
    permanent magnetic field, electric and magnetic
    fields of industrial frequency (50 hertz),
    ionizing radiation

38
Physical factors
  • industrial noise, ultrasound, infrasound
  • vibration (local, general)
  • lighting (natural artificial insufficient,
    direct and reflected shine, fluctuation of
    lighting).

39
Chemical factors
  • substances of chemical origin,
  • substances of biological character that were
    obtained due to chemical synthesis,
  • substances that should be controlled due to
    chemical analysis.

40
Biological factors
  • micro-organisms - producers, viruses, and
    spores, pathogens.

41
  • protozoan , -zoa or -zoans 1) Also called
    protozoon -zoa any of various minute
    unicellular organisms formerly regarded as
    invertebrates of the phylum Protozoa but now
    usually classified in certain phyla of
    protoctists. Protozoans include flagellates,
    ciliates, sporozoans, amoebas, and foraminifers
    also protozoic 2) of or relating to protozoans

42
Hygienic norms of working conditions
  • (maximum permissible concentration, maximum
    permissible level, etc) are the levels of
    harmful working factors which cannot cause
    diseases or disturbance in health, which can be
    indicated by modern research methods, during the
    work or remote life periods of the present and
    subsequent generations. The norms are measured
    for daily work (except days off) during 8 hours,
    but not more than 40 per week.

43
The act of Ministry of Health of Ukraine ?528 on
27.12.2001 introduced
  • The Hygienic CLASSIFICATION OF WORK ACCORDING THE
    HARMFULNESS AND DANGER OF FACTORS OF WORKING
    ENVIRONMENT, PRODUCTIVE HARDNESS AND TENSION

44
List of the main occupational diseases

Psycho-emotional factors (psycho-emotional stress at working place) Work with mentally ill people Psychoneuroses, depression, neuroasthenia Psychoneuroses, traumas.
45
Kinds of prophylaxis
  • Prevention (prophylaxis) of the occupational
    pathology is the system of state, medical and
    public measures aimed at improvement and
    preservation of the workers health at industrial
    or agricultural enterprises.
  • Primary (initial) prophylaxis includes
    prevention of diseases, influence on the factors
    that cause illness and risk factors that
    stimulate it.
  • Repeated (secondary) prophylaxis aims at
    prevention of development and aggravation of the
    disease, elimination of negative influence of the
    environmental factors and systematic treatment of
    the patient.

46
Tertiary prophylaxis
  • includes medicoprophylactic technologies aimed
    at removing negative consequences of the disease
    (relapses, complications, temporary and permanent
    disability, death). Also this kind of prophylaxis
    contemplates improvement of patients life
    quality (prosthetics, removing of pain syndrome

47
The list of professions that require medical
examinations of the workers
  • The workers of all professions who are under 21
    years old.
  • The workers of all professions who work being
    influenced by harmful substances and negative
    working factors.
  • The workers of all professions who work
    underground.
  • The workers of all professions who work at
    hydrometeorological stations, communication
    services located in polar, mountainous, arid
    (desert) regions or other back or uninhabited
    lands, in difficult climatic conditions.

48
The list of professions that require medical
examinations of the workers
  • The workers of all professions who work at high
    altitude.
  • The workers who work at electrical installations
    with the voltage more than 1000 V.
  • The workers of all professions who work in the
    forestry and timber enterprises.
  • Machine operators who deal with the devices under
    pressure.

49
The list of professions that requires medical
examination of the workers
  • Boiler plant workers
  • Workers who deal with explosive substances or
    who work at highly explosive or fire-hazardous
    enterprises
  • Work with machinery
  • Work connected with means of transport.

50
Pediatric hygiene
  • Pediatric hygiene is the main prophylactic
    science that researches the influence of factors
    of environment, academic (studying) and upbrining
    conditions on childrens health.
  • An object under study is childrens organism from
    the birth to the end of period of growth.

51
Pediatric hygiene (cont.)
  • Birth-rate, natural increase of population are
    very important indices of health of population.
  • The child is not a little adult and has many
    morphological and physiological peculiarities.
  • The organism of children and teenagers is
    characterized by 2 processes growth and
    development.

52
Growth development
  • Growth is a quantitative characteristic of
    children, whereas development is a qualitative
    one. These processes are interdependent one with
    the other.

53
Diseases of schoolchildren
  • As a result of studying stress, exacerbation of
    chronic illness diseases of ears, throat, and
    nose, acute illness of upper respiratory organs
    are typical for pupils. From 50 up to 90 of
    pupils have dental caries.

54
 Morbidity rate per 1000 population of
corresponding age
55
Morbidity of schoolchildren
  • Hypodynamia of children and irrational nutrition
    results in extra-weight of children and
    teenagers. Children of our generation are sitting
    all the way in schools (5-7 lessons) and spending
    2-4 hours preparing their homework, let alone 3-5
    hours watching TV. That is why physical activity
    and rational nutrition are very significant
    factors for prophylaxis of extra-weight.

56
Physiometric method
  • Vital volume of lungs is measured by means of
    water or air spirometers (lung tester). The child
    takes his maximum breath and exhales slowly in
    the mouthpiece of spirometer, exhalation through
    the nose is to be eliminated. After 2-3
    measurements the largest result is taken into
    account. Muscular force of hands and trunk is
    determined by dynamometers.

57
Somatoscopic method
  • Skeleton is subdivided into thin (narrow
    shoulders and thorax, hands an feet of small
    size) stocky (broad skeleton, wide shoulders and
    hands is evaluate more than an average one), and
    middle (intermediate between thin and stocky.
    Forms of the thorax are divided into cylindrical,
    conical, plane.

58
Somatoscopic method
  • The posture its a natural pose of freely
    standing man (or child). Posture can be correct
    or incorrect. Incorrect posture might be
    lordotic, kyphotic, straightened, round
    shouldered.

59
Kinds of posture
  • Lordotic posture is characterized by extremely
    expressed lower back lordosis and decrease of
    cervical flexure. In case of lordotic posture
    head and shoulders a throw back while abdomen -
    forward. When the posture is round - shoulders
    the cervical flexure is extremely expressed and
    lumbar flexure is smoothed. Shoulders dropped,
    abdomen - forward. In kyphotic posture both
    flexures (cervical and lumbar flexures) are
    extremely expressed and at straightened posture
    they are smoothed.

60
How to assess physical development?
  • Method of "Sigmal deviations". Estimation of
    physical development children and teenagers by
    means of "Sigmal deviations" method is carried ?n
    separately height, weight and other indices.
    First the material is reviewed and classified by
    age, sex, nationality, health condition, etc.

61
Method of " Regression scale"
  • Method of " Regression scale" by stature. This
    method takes into account correlation between
    stature, weight and circumference of thorax i.e.
    it allows to get combined estimation of physical
    development according totality of signs and their
    interdependence.

62
Complex method of estimation of physical
development
  • This method is based on the method of
    "Regression scale" and takes into account number
    of teeth, level of sexual development, annual
    additions in stature, and others.
  • In accordance with this method of physical
    development estimation, all children and
    teenagers are divided into 3 groups.

63
Groups of physical development
  • The first group includes children whose
    biological age corresponds to their passport age.
    The second group includes all children whose
    biological age overtakes passport one. Children
    whose biological age is below passport one are
    classifyed as the third group of physical
    development.

64
Methods of hygienic estimation of functional
readiness of children for education at school.
  • Express-evaluation (screening test) of functional
    readiness of children for education at school
    (test by Kern-Eraesek)
  • The deep (profound) psychophysiological study of
    the higher nervous activity of the child.
  • Test by Kern-Erasek consists of three tasks
  • - Drawing a man
  • - Copying a short phrase of 3-4 words
  • - Copying a group of dots.

65
Test by Kern-Erasek
  • In the first task the child should draw a man
    without any instructions in the second task he
    should copy a short phrase from the sample, e.g.
    He ate the soup, She drank milk in the
    third the child looks at the sample for 1
    minute and then tries to remember the number and
    location of dots and copy them into his paper.

66
The criteria of general estimation
  • Up to 5 points high functional readiness of
    children for education at school
  • 6-10 points medium functional readiness of
    children for education at school
  • More than 11 points low functional readiness of
    children for education at school.

67
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68
Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical
University Hygiene and Ecology Department ?OPIC
OF THE LECTURE Hospital Hygiene. Modern problems
of hospital construction. Nosocomial Infections
Prevention. Occupational Hygiene of different
profile physicians. Lecturer Krystyna Zaytseva,
PhD, Assistant Professor of Hygiene Ecology
Department
69
Outline of the lecture
  • 1. Hospital Hygiene as a Section of Hygiene. The
    basic concepts of Hospital Hygiene.
  • 1.1. Contents (Set of basic forms/documents/) of
    Hospital Construction Project
  • 1.2. The basic variants of Conclusion on the
    results of Hospital Construction Project Sanitary
    Expertise
  • 1.3. Basic systems of hospital construction
  • 1.4. Hygienic requirements to the land plot for
    hospital building
  • 1.5. Functional Zones of hospital land plot
  • 1.6. Hygienic principles of internal planning of
    hospital buildings
  • 1.7. Planning of department wards. The basic
    types of hospital wards.
  • 1.8. Air Cleanness Sanitary Criteria in a
    hospital ward
  • 1.9. Rational bed dislocation in the hospital
    ward
  • 2. Nosocomial Infections Prevention.
  • 2.1. Concept of Nosocomial Infection.
  • 2.2. Concept of Sanitary-Antepidemic Regimen.
    Groups of Measures of Sanitary-Antepidemic
    Regimen at the hospital.
  • 2.3. Disinfection. Classification of
    Disinfection.
  • 3. Occupational Hygiene of different profile
    physicians (Occupational Hygiene of Therapist,
    Surgeon, Dentist, Infectionist, etc.)

70
Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical
University Hygiene and Ecology Department ?OPIC
OF THE LECTURE HYGIENIC FOUNDATIONS OF HEALTHY
LIFESTYLE. ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL HYGIENE.
MODERN PROBLEMS OF PSYCHOHYGIENE AND MENTAL
HEALTH PROMOTION. HYGIENIC FOUNDATIONS OF
BIORHYTHMOLOGY. Lecturer Krystyna Zaytseva,
PhD, Assistant Professor of Hygiene Ecology
Department
71
Outline of the lecture
  • 1. Hygienic foundations of healthy lifestyle.
  • 1.1. Health Lifestyle as 2 basic
    characteristics of human organism condition.
    Definitions.
  • 1.2. Concept of Wellness
  • 1.3. Lifestyle significance for health wellness
  • 1.4. Lifestyle conception by acad. Lisitsin
    (Russia)
  • 1.5. State-of-art definitions for lifestyle
  • 2. Actual problems of Personal Hygiene.
  • 2.1. The main types of lifestyle errors
  • 3. Modern Problems of Psychohygiene and Mental
    Health Promotion.
  • 3.1. Definition of Psychohygiene (Mental Hygiene)
  • 3.2. Basic tasks of Psychohygiene
  • 3.3. Concept of Mental Health
  • 3.4. Psychohygienic principles of Mental Health
    Promotion
  • 3.5. Definition of Psychophysiology
  • 3.6. Main socially significant psychophysiological
    functions
  • 3.7. Main professionally significant
    psychophysiological functions
  • 4. Hygienic foundations of Biorhythmology.
  • 4.1. Definition of Chronohygiene
  • 4.2. Definition of Biorhythm. Human types by
    biorhythmological structure of organism

72
Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical
University Hygiene and Ecology Department ?OPIC
OF THE LECTURE Radiation Hygiene. Hygienic
problems of environment pollution with
radionuclides. Hygienic aspects of Antirad
Protection at medical treatment
facilities. Lecturer Krystyna Zaytseva, PhD,
Assistant Professor of Hygiene Ecology
Department
73
Outline of the lecture
  • 1. Radiation Hygiene
  • 1.1. Radiation Hygiene as a branch of hygiene
    /brief intro/
  • 1.2. Foundations of Theory of Radioactivity
    /Basic concepts review/
  • 2. Hygienic problems of environment pollution
    with radionuclides
  • 2.1. Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics
    for Radionuclides (connected to radioactive
    pollution of environment and health impact)
  • 2.2. Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics
    for different kinds of Ionizing Radiation
    (connected to radioactive pollution of
    environment and health impact)
  • 2.3. Radiobiological Effects
  • 3. Hygienic aspects of Antirad Protection at the
    medical treatment facilities
  • 3.1. The basic directions of Antirad Protection
  • 3.2 .Radiation Control Devices
  • 3.3. Radiation Safety Standards in Ukraine

74
Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical
University Hygiene and Ecology Department ?OPIC
OF THE LECTURE HYGIENIC CHARACTERISTIC OF
CLIMATE AND WEATHER IN COUNTRIES WITH HOT CLIMATE
AND TROPICAL BELT COUNTRIES. QUESTIONS OF
MUNICIPAL HYGIENE, URBAN PLANNING AND WATER
SUPPLY IN TROPICAL CLIMATE. HYGIENIC PROBLEMS OF
RATIONAL NUTRITION IN COUNTRIES WITH HOT CLIMATE
AND TROPICAL BELT COUNTRIES. WHO PREVENTIVE
PROGRAMS. Lecturer Krystyna Zaytseva, PhD,
Assistant Professor of Hygiene Ecology
Department
75
Outline of the lecture
  • 1. Hygienic characteristic of climate and weather
    in countries with hot climate and Tropical Belt
    Countries (Brief Intro).
  • 1.1. Tropics as geographic concept (Definition).
    Geography of Tropical Zone.
  • 1.2. Medico-geographical aspect of characteristic
    of Tropics
  • 1.3. The basic types of tropical climate
  • 2. Influence of hot climate on the person
    organism
  • 2.1. Medical Climatology Medical Geography as
    the Sciences Allied to Climatology
  • 2.2. Peculiarities of air temperature in
    tropical belt. Standard, Health Impact.
  • 2.3. Peculiarities of air humidity in tropical
    belt. Health Impact. Standard, Health Impact.
  • 2.4. Heat stroke (condition, pathogenesis,
    disease clinical pattern)
  • 3. Questions of Municipal Hygiene, urban planning
    and water supply in tropical climate.
  • 3.1. 3 basic types of wells in tropical countries
    /recommended by WHO/
  • 3.2. Problems of the occupied places planning in
    tropical countries. Recommended medical and
    sanitary support of occupied places in tropical
    countries /by WHO/. 3.3. Basic types of toilettes
    for tropical contries / recommended by WHO/.
  • 3.4. Problems of Labor Hygiene in conditions of
    tropics (day regimen, wear, footwear )
  • 4. Hygienic problems of rational nutrition in
    Tropical Belt Countries.
  • 4.1.Classification of Tropical Diseases with
    Alimentary Way of transmission (by WHO)
  • 5. WHO preventive programs.
  • 5.1. Brief history, aims structure of WHO. The
    Millennium Development Goals.

76
Urbanization and population health. Hygienic
significance of accommodation
77
  • Different forms of urbanization can be classified
    depending on the style of architecture and
    planning methods as well as historic growth of
    areas.

78
  • In cities of the developed world urbanization
    traditionally exhibited a concentration of human
    activities and settlements around the downtown
    area, the so-called in-migration. In-migration
    refers to migration from former colonies and
    similar places.

79
  • Recent developments, such as inner-city
    redevelopment schemes, mean that new arrivals in
    cities no longer necessarily settle in the
    centre. In some developed regions, the reverse
    effect, originally called counter urbanisation
    has occurred, with cities losing population to
    rural areas, and is particularly common for
    richer families.

80
  • inner city a) the parts of a city in or near its
    centre, esp when they are associated with
    poverty, unemployment, substandard housing, etc
    b) (as modifier) inner-city schools inner city
    ????? ?????? ("????? ? ??????") ?????? ?????,
    ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ...

81
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82
  • Private car circulation has been restricted in
    some cities in South America and Europe in
    attempts to reduce harmful levels of air
    pollution. Worldwide, more than 1 000 million
    urban residents are exposed to health-threatening
    levels of air pollution (Schwele 1995).

83
  • Urbanisation is most rapid in Third World
    countries, where the world's largest cities
    occur. Mexico City, the world's largest city, has
    a population of more than 18 million, estimated
    to grow to over 26 million people by the year
    2000.

84
  • Unplanned rapid urbanisation has been identified
    as a health hazard in southern Africa, leading to
    conditions that spread serious diseases. These
    diseases stem from environmental problems such as
    contaminated water, poor sanitation,
    smoke-polluted indoor air and exposure to
    mosquitoes, along with other examples of crowded
    living conditions.

85
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86
Environment pollution
  • Chemicals used in both primary sectors are major
    factors in causing and worsening tuberculosis,
    bronchitis, heart disease, cancer and asthma.
    Increased exposure to chemical health risks in
    urban areas is particularly harmful to children
    and pregnant women.

87
Air pollution
  • The quality of air is also affected by the
    industrialisation that occurs with urbanisation.
    Air pollution levels are neither monitored nor
    controlled in most cities in Africa, but while
    air pollution is still low compared with other
    areas,

88
  • The main sources of air pollution are found in
    urban areas and major developments such as mines
    and industries. Burning of fuelwood, fires,
    exhaust fumes from vehicles and the use of coal
    in factories cause air pollution,

89
  • Urban demand for water in Latin America is likely
    to rise fivefold during the next four decades
    (WRI, UNEP and UNDP 1994).

90
  • In Western Europe (EEA 1998) and North America
    (WRI, UNEP, UNDP and WB 1996), in contrast with
    most other regions, there is a move out of large
    cities into suburbs and smaller urban centres.

91
Conclusion
  • Recent trends in urbanization reflect economic
    and political changes. Within the context of the
    structural changes in the world economy, some
    regions and cities have proved more flexible than
    nations in adapting to changing economic
    conditions.

92
  • Thank you!

93
  • accommodation 1) lodging or board and lodging
    2) adjustment, as of differences or to new
    circumstances adaptation, settlement, or
    reconciliation 3) something fulfilling a need,
    want, etc. convenience or facility 4) physiology
    the automatic or voluntary adjustment of the
    shape of the lens of the eye for far or near
    vision 5) willingness to help or oblige 6)
    commerce a loan, usually made as an act of favour
    by a bank before formal credit arrangements are
    agreed
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