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Chapter 7 Software Development A Textbook aimed at protecting consumers Software Quality Links Ian Foster and Grid Computing The Risks Digest

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Title: Chapter 7 Software Development A Textbook aimed at protecting consumers Software Quality Links Ian Foster and Grid Computing The Risks Digest


1
Chapter 7Software Development A Textbook
aimed at protecting consumersSoftware Quality
LinksIan Foster and Grid ComputingThe Risks
Digest
2
Chapter 7 - Objectives
  1. Discuss the need for quality software in business
    systems, industrial process control systems, and
    consumer products.
  2. Discuss the ethical issues in software
    manufacturing.
  3. Identify the four most common types of software
    product liability claims.
  4. Identify the essential components of a software
    development methodology.
  5. Discuss the use of the Capability Maturity Model.
  6. Define what a safety-critical system is.

3
Strategies to Engineer Quality Systems
  • A software defect is any error that, if not
    removed, would cause a system to fail to meet the
    needs of its users.
  • Software quality is the degree to which the
    attributes of a software product enable it to
    meet the needs of its users.

4
Strategies to Engineer Quality Systems
  • Quality management address how to define,
    measure, and refine the quality of the
    information systems development process and
    product.
  • Deliverables are the items developed during the
    development process (flowcharts, documentation,
    software, etc.)

5
Software Quality
  • Software is used to control many business and
    industrial processes.
  • The impact of a software defect can be
    devastating and result in upset customers and the
    eventual loss or reduction in revenue.

6
Legal Overview
  • Product liability is the liability of
    manufacturers, sellers, leasers, and others for
    the injuries caused by defective products.
  • Strict liability means that the defendant is
    responsible for injuring another person
    regardless of negligence or intent.

7
Legal Overview
  • Under negligence, a software supplier cannot be
    held responsible for every product defect that
    causes customer or third party loss.
  • Responsibility is limited to harmful defects that
    could have been detected and corrected through
    reasonable software development practices.
  • Legal Fix for Software Flaws?

8
Legal Overview
  • Warranty assures the buyer that a product meets
    certain standards of quality.
  • If a product fails to meets its warranty, the
    customer can sue the seller for breach of
    warranty.
  • Intentional misrepresentation occurs when a
    seller misrepresents the quality of a product.
  • Open Sourcewhos responsible? An interesting
    article

9
From Osler
  • In assessing whether a design defect is present,
    the factors that the court will consider,
    frequently with the assistance of expert
    evidence, will include
  • The utility of the product and the likelihood of
    injury resulting from its use
  • Whether the design was influenced by a desire to
    prevent more likely types of injuries
  • The extent of the testing done during the design
    process
  • Whether there were internally or externally
    established standards which were breached
  • The availability of alternative designs that
    could have reduced or eliminated the risks at a
    reasonable cost and with limited impact on
    functionality
  • The reasonable expectations of safety and utility
    of consumers or users of the product.

10
Software Development Process
  • Developing information system software is a
    complex activity.
  • A system development methodology enables systems
    analysts, programmers, project managers, and
    others to make controlled and orderly progress in
    developing high-quality software.

11
System Development Process
  • Software quality assurance refers to those
    methods within the software development
    methodology that are used to guarantee that
    software being developed will operate reliably.

12
System Testing
  • Dynamic testing is testing code by entering test
    data and comparing actual results to expected
    results.
  • Black-box testing involves viewing the software
    unit as a device that has expected input and
    output behaviors but whose internal workings are
    unknown.
  • White-box testing involves viewing the software
    unit as a device that has expected input and
    output behaviors but whose internal workings are
    known.

13
System Testing
  • Static testing is running an analyzer software
    that looks for suspicious patterns in programs
    that might indicate a software defect.
  • Integration testing ensures that all linkages
    among various subsystems work successfully.

14
System Testing
  • System testing is conducted to test the entire
    system as a complete entity.
  • User acceptance testing is an independent test
    performed by trained end users to ensure that the
    system operates as expected from their
    viewpoints.

15
Capability Maturity Model
  • Carnegie Mellon Institute developed the
    Capability Maturity Model for Software.
  • It defines five levels of software development
    process maturity and identifies the issues most
    critical to software quality and process
    improvement.

16
Capability Maturity Model
17
Development of Safety-Critical Systems
  • A safety-critical system is one whose failure may
    cause injury or death to human beings.
  • Risk is the product of probability of an
    undesirable event occurring times the magnitude
    of the consequence of the event happening.
  • Therac-25 example

18
Development of Safety Critical Systems
  • Redundancy is the provision of multiple
    interchangeable components to perform a single
    function in order to cope with failures and
    errors.
  • Reliability is the probability of a component or
    system performing its mission over a certain
    length of time.

19
Development of Safety-Critical Systems
  • One of the most important and difficult areas of
    safety-critical systems design is the
    human-system interface.
  • Poor human-system interfaces can greatly increase
    risk, sometimes with tragic consequences. (Risks
    Digest)

20
Quality Management Standards
  • The International Organization for
    Standardization issued the ISO series of business
    management standards in 1988.
  • ISO 9000 is a series of formal standards to
    follow when developing quality information
    systems.

21
ISO 9000
  • To be ISO 9000 certified, a company must do three
    things
  • Have written procedures for everything they do.
  • Follow those procedures.
  • Prove to an auditor that they have written
    procedures and that they follow them.

22
ISO 9000
  • ISO 9001 Design, development, production,
    installation, service
  • ISO 9002 Production, installation, service
  • ISO 9003 Final inspection and test
  • ISO 9004 Quality management and quality systems
    elements

23
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
  • FMEA is an important technique used to develop
    any ISO 9000 compliant systems.
  • FMEA is used as a reliability evaluation
    technique to determine the effect of system and
    equipment failure.
  • Failures are classified on their impact on
    mission success, personnel safety, equipment
    safety, customer satisfaction, and customer
    safety.

24
Summary
  • High-quality software systems are needed because
    they are easy to learn and easy to use, perform
    the functions that meet users needs, and have a
    high degree of availability.
  • There are many ethical issues facing software
    developers. The impact of software defects can
    have devastating effects.
  • Software product liability claims are frequently
    based on strict liability, negligence, breach of
    warranty, or misrepresentation.

25
Summary
  • A software development methodology defines the
    activities in the system development process.
  • An effective system development methodology
    protects software manufacturers from legal
    liability for defective software.
  • The Capability Maturity Model defines five levels
    of software development process.

26
Case 1 - Airbags
  • Airbags deploy at 140 mph unleashing too much
    energy for smaller people and children. Auto
    makers are working to make airbags more safe.
    Some argue that airbag technology is too
    complicated. They say educating the public would
    be better.

27
Case 2 - Patriot Missile
  • On February 25, 1991, a Patriot missile defense
    system in Saudi Arabia failed to track and
    intercept an incoming scud missile because of a
    software problem. The incoming missile hit an
    Army barracks and killed twenty-eight Americans.
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