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Social Change

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Social Change THE CAPITALIST REVOLUTIONS Emerged from particular form of advanced agrarian state systems Feudalism in Europe and Japan (parallel evol) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Change


1
Social Change
  • THE CAPITALIST REVOLUTIONS
  • Emerged from particular form of advanced
  • agrarian state systems Feudalism
  • in Europe and Japan (parallel evol)
  • 800-1400s 1200-1800s
  • (Before Feudalism, peasant agricultural
    production was
  • less organized, less efficient, and less
    productive)

2
Social Change
  • FEUDALISM (more about capitalism later)
  • Note throughout all of this, peasant life
    remained basically the same.
  • Europe 800 1450
  • Japan 1200 1800s
  • (six centuries of development!)
  • Five characteristics

3
Social Change
  • 1. Landlord-Peasant exploitation - extraction of
    agricultural surplus by landlords/vassals from
    peasants.
  • Class structure
  • Europe Landlords, Vassals, Peasants
    Merchants, Wageworkers
  • Japan Daimyo, Samurai, Peasants
    Chonin, Hokonin

4
Social Change
  • 2. Landlords granted fiefdoms to vassals in
    return for service/loyalty --
  • Manors in Europe -- inherited property
  • Owned by families (inter-generationally)
  • -- but couldnt be sold inalienable

5
Social Change
  • 3. Held together by military force
  • Landlords/vassals were also warriors/military
  • Leaders -- warlords
  • Loyalty/service included contributing to
  • defense and conquest (often younger sons)

6
Social Change
  • 4. Oath of fealty --
  • tied landlords and vassals together forever
    (intergenerational)
  • Binding on subsequent generations, etc.

7
Social Change
  • 5. Manors (vassals) granted much autonomy in
  • return for fealty and tribute (part of local
  • surplus).
  • Unlike the Romans who allowed little autonomy
  • autonomy one of the reasons for slow growth

8
Social Change
  • Coexisting with Feudal System were largely
  • autonomous merchant towns, protected by
  • landlords.
  • Based on internal and external trade and
  • craft manufacture by wageworkers/hokonin.
  • Elements included
  • Factories, wage labor, money-banking-contract
  • systems, legal system, neutral govt.

9
Social Change
  • During the Feudal Period
  • More organized peasant production produced
  • increasingly larger surpluses growing pops.
  • Gradual growth of peasant pop
  • Growth of wealth and pop of landlords/vassals

10
Social Change
  • Landlords traded part of surplus to merchants
  • for luxury goods and some technology
  • (to increase peasant prod).
  • (Landlord wealth in land luxury goods --
  • Merchant wealth in money eventually
  • factories)

11
Social Change
  • Increasing productivity pop growth expands
  • merchant towns faster than feudal manors.
  • Merchants continually expand trade networks
  • factory production in towns
  • (at first feudal-type craft work -- later
  • replaced by factory system and wagework --
  • Why? More efficient productive.)

12
Social Change
  • Merchants seek out colonies for precious
  • metals (gold, etc.) raw material for indus
    (cotton-textiles, etc.).
  • Early colonialism leads to early Core
  • (colonizing exploiting) Peripheral
  • (exploited) structure.

13
Social Change
  • Over several centuries, this process would have
  • led to industrialization anyway, but in Europe
  • and Japan, the Feudal systems collapsed and
  • this led to industrial revolutions rather than
  • gradual transitions.

14
Social Change
  • THE COLLAPSE OF FEUDAL SYSTEMS
  • Characteristics of states where collapse
  • occurred capitalism emerged
  • (England, Netherlands, Japan)

15
Social Change
  • -- Small size - more efficient organized
  • state system and class structure.
  • less internal warfare

16
Social Change
  • -- Geography - large access to waterways, more
    efficient for transportation/trade.

17
Social Change
  • -- Climate - temperate
  • (colder climates not as agri productive,
  • tropical climates had less assertive states)
  • Eventually warmer climates were exploited for
  • raw materials -- peripheralized
  • (e.g. US South cotton).

18
Social Change
  • -- -- Dramatic population growth.
  • few constraints (wars, etc.)

19
Social Change
  • -- Most political autonomy for merchants
  • (in best interests of landlords who benefited
  • from trade).
  • Modeled after the fiefdoms!

20
Social Change
  • Where the feudal system worked best (small
  • states on waterways with temperate climates),
  • productivity was high, population growth was
  • high, and landlords granted a lot of autonomy
  • to merchants.
  • Productivity and population growth (surplus
  • peasants) provided work force for merchants,
  • and landlords were among the main customers.

21
Social Change
  • Over generations, population growth among the
  • landlords and vassals began to dilute the land-
  • based system.
  • Inheritance increasingly broke up the manors
  • and eventually landlords began to sell off land.
  • Primogeniture (oldest son inherits) was a
  • response to this.

22
Social Change
  • Ironically, where feudalism was most successful
  • was where it collapsed,
  • spawning capitalism/industrialization.
  • Revolution and reorganization by merchants
  • becoming capitalists
  • (Marx the bourgeois revolutions)

23
Social Change
  • Next
  • Capitalism and
  • Evolution of the WSYS
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