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Body Composition

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Title: Body Composition Author: CAST, Illinois State University Last modified by: Administrator Created Date: 4/4/1999 6:17:26 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Body Composition


1
Body Composition
2
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3
Body Composition
  • Body composition involves all components of the
    body including
  • Fat mass
  • Muscle mass
  • Bone mass
  • Water volume

4
Body Composition
  • Weve talked about muscle mass, so this section
    will focus on fat management.

5
Body Composition Abnormalities
  • Obesity Epidemic
  • 33 billion weight-loss industry
  • 168 billion cost total
  • 33.3 of all U.S. adults are obese - an excess
    of body fat frequently resulting in a
    significant impairment of health
  • 65 are sedentary
  • 25 of school-aged children are overweight or
    obese.
  • 70 chance of early death.

6
Obesity
  • Defined as the percent body fat at which disease
    risk increases.

7
Obesity
  • An excessive amount of body fat relative to body
    weight
  • not synonymous with overweight.

8
Overweight and Obesity
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is the most commonly used
    measure to define overweight and obesity.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

9
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
  • BMI is a measure of weight in relation to height.
  • Weight in Kg divided by height in meters2
  • Weight in pounds divided by height in inches2,
    multiplied by 703.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

10
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
  • National Institutes of Health Clinical Guidelines
  • overweight in adults
  • BMI between 25 to 29.9
  • obesity in adults
  • BMI of 30 or greater.
  • Health risks are greater with a BMI gt 25.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

11
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
  • The risk of premature death increases with an
    increasing BMI.
  • This increase in mortality tends to be modest
    until a BMI of 30 is reached.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

12
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13
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
  • Overweight and obesity are increasing in both
    genders and among all population groups.

14
Body Composition
  • Because BMI criteria do not take into account the
    composition of the excess weight, they are
    limited as indexes of obesity and may result in
    misclassifications of obesity.

15
Body Composition
  • Overweight vs Overfat
  • Metropolitan Life Insurance Height-Weight Charts

16
Two-component Model
  • Fat mass
  • Fat-free mass

17
Criterion Referenced Standards
  • College Aged Men Women
  • Underfat lt 3 lt12
  • Healthy Zones 3-20 12-30
  • Overfat gt20 gt 30
  • Obese gt 25 gt 35

18
Essential Fat
  • Necessary for normal physiologic function
  • Men 3
  • Women 12

19
Non-essential fat
  • Stored energy
  • Average for college aged
  • Man 12
  • Woman 12

20
Average for College Aged
  • Male 15
  • Female 24

21
Sport specific body fat levels
  • Movement required
  • Resistance to movement required

Sprinter Maurice Greene
22
Body Composition
  • Combating obesity and eating disorders is not an
    easy task.

23
Body Composition
  • A positive energy balance leads to excessive
    weight gain and obesity
  • improper diet
  • overeating
  • hormonal disturbances
  • physical inactivity

24
Body Composition
  • Lack of physical activity rather than overeating
    is a more common cause of obesity in children and
    adults.

25
Creeping Obesity
  • Food Intake
  • Activity Levels
  • Basal Metabolic Rate

26
Body Composition
  • Obese individuals are invariably sedentary and
    many have had poor experiences with exercise in
    the past.

27
Overweight and Obesity
  • Among women, the prevalence of overweight and
    obesity generally is higher in women who are
    members of racial and ethnic minority populations
    than in non-Hispanic white women.7
  • Among men, Hispanics have a higher prevalence of
    overweight and obesity than non-Hispanic whites
    or non-Hispanic blacks.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

28
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
  • For non-Hispanic men, the prevalence of
    overweight and obesity among whites is slightly
    greater than among blacks.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

29
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
30
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
  • Disparities in prevalence of overweight and
    obesity also exist based on socioeconomic
    status.7
  • For all racial and ethnic groups combined, women
    of lower socioeconomic status (income lt130
    percent of the poverty threshold) are
    approximately 50 percent more likely to be obese
    than those with higher socioeconomic status
    (income gt 130 percent of the poverty threshold).
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

31
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
  • Men are about equally likely to be obese whether
    they are in a low or high socioeconomic group.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

32
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
  • The overweight and obesity epidemic is not
    limited to adults.
  • The percentage of young people who are overweight
    has almost doubled in the last 20 years for
    children aged 6-11 and almost tripled for
    adolescents aged 12-19.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

33
The Epidemic of Overweight and Obesity
  • In children and adolescents, overweight has been
    defined as a sex- and age- specific BMI at or
    above the 95th percentile for a reference
    population, based on Centers for Disease Control
    and Prevention (CDC) growth charts.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

34
Health Risks of Not Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • There is an increase in mortality associated with
    overweight and obesity.
  • Approximately 300,000 deaths a year in this
    country are currently associated with overweight
    and obesity.29
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

35
Health Risks of Not Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Morbidity from obesity may be as great as from
    poverty, smoking, or problem drinking.20

36
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37
Health Risks of Not Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • It is also important for individuals who are
    currently at a healthy weight to strive to
    maintain it since both modest and large weight
    gains are associated with significantly increased
    risk of disease.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

38
Health Risks of Not Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • For example, a weight gain of 11 to 18 pounds
    increases a persons risk for developing type 2
    diabetes to twice that of individuals who have
    not gained weight, while those who gain 44 pounds
    or more have four times the risk of type 2
    diabetes.30
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

39
Health Risks of Not Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • A gain of 10 to 20 pounds resulted in an
    increased risk of coronary heart disease (which
    can result in nonfatal heart attacks and death)
    of 1.25 times in women31 and 1.6 times in men.32
  • In these studies, weight increases of 22 pounds
    in men and 44 pounds in women resulted in a
    increased coronary heart disease risk of 1.75 and
    2.65, respectively.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

40
Health Risks of Not Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Women with a BMI of 34 or greater, the risk of
    developing endometrial cancer was increased by
    more than 6 times.33
  • Overweight and obesity are also known to
    exacerbate many chronic conditions such as
    hypertension and elevated cholesterol.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

41
Body Composition
  • The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia,
    hypertension, and Type II diabetes is,
    respectively 2.9, 2.1, and 2.9 times greater in
    overweight than in non-overweight persons.

42
Body Composition
  • Recent evidence indicates that central obesity
    is particularly problematic.
  • Abdominal fat is strongly associated with
    diseases such as CHD, diabetes, hypertension, and
    hyperlipidemia.

43
Body Composition
  • Android and Gynoid Obesity

44
Body Composition
  • Obesity is associated with a reduced physical
    working capacity.

45
Health Risks of Not Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Overweight and obese individuals also may suffer
    from social stigmatization, discrimination, and
    poor body image.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

46
Body Composition
  • At the opposite extreme, individuals with too
    little body fat tend to be malnourished.

47
Body Composition
  • One disease associated with extremely low body
    fat levels is anorexia nervosa.

48
Body Composition
  • Anorexics have a relatively higher risk of
  • fluid-electrolyte imbalances,
  • osteoporosis and osteopenia,
  • bone fractures,
  • muscle wasting,
  • cardiac arrhythmias,
  • sudden death,
  • edema,
  • and renal and reproductive disorders.

49
Body Composition
  • Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder found
    primarily in females and is characterized by
    excessive weight loss.

50
Body Composition
  • Anorexics have extremely low body fat levels (8
    to 13), signs of muscle wasting, and less bone
    mineral content and bone density.

51
Health Risks of Not Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Important consequences of excess weight as well
    as antecedents of adult disease occur in
    overweight children and adolescents.
  • Overweight children and adolescents are more
    likely to become overweight or obese adults.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

52
Health Risks of Not Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Type 2 diabetes, high blood lipids, and
    hypertension as well as early maturation and
    orthopedic problems are occurring with increased
    frequency.
  • A common consequence of childhood overweight is
    psychosocial specifically discrimination.34
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

53
System Dysfunction Associated with Obesity
Cardiovascular
Renal
Liver
Metabolic
Reproductive
Obesity
Skeletal
Hormonal
Respiratory
Intestinal
Pancreas
Muscular
54
Hormones
  • Hormones play an important role in regulating
    metabolism.

55
Hormones
  • Thyroxine is extremely important in regulating
    resting metabolic rate.
  • Underproduction of thyroxine can reduce RMR 30 to
    50.

56
Hormones
  • May elevate RMR as much as 15 to 20.
  • Growth hormone,
  • Epinephrine,
  • Norepinephrine,
  • Various sex hormones

57
Hormones
  • These hormones increase during exercise and may
    be responsible for the elevation in resting
    metabolic rate after cessation of exercise.

58
Genetics
  • Only 10 of children who had normal-weight
    parents were obese.

59
Genetics
  • The probability of being obese is increased to
    40 and 80, respectively, if one parent or both
    parents are obese.

60
Genetics
  • Although these data suggest a strong genetic
    influence, they do not rule out environmental
    influences such as eating and exercise habits.

61
Genetics
  • Approximately 25 of the variability among
    individuals in absolute and relative body fat is
    attributed to genetic factors and 30 is
    associated with cultural (environmental) factors.

62
Psychological Issues
  • Overweight and obesity may be linked to
    psychological factors.
  • Some overweight and obese individuals use food
    and eating as a coping mechanism or defense
    mechanism.

63
Psychological Issues
  • Compulsive eaters may eat to cope with feelings
    of insecurity, anxiety, depression, loneliness,
    stress, and tension rather than to satisfy hunger.

64
Psychological Issues
  • In this case, the individual needs to recognize
    the fact that he or she is eating compulsively,
    identify the underlying reasons for this
    behavior, and take steps to modify these
    behaviors.

65
Psychological Issues
  • Encourage clients with eating disorders to seek
    psychological counseling.

66
Fat Patterning
  • Sex related patterns
  • Genetic based patterns

67
Fat Storage
  • One door room.
  • Primary storage sites.
  • Secondary storage sites.
  • Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy

68
Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy
  • Obesity is associated with increases in both the
    number (hyperplasia) and size (hypertrophy) of
    fat cells.

69
Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy
  • An increase in fat cell number occurs rapidly
    during
  • the last trimester in the womb through the first
    year of life,
  • around ages 7-8,
  • and again during adolescence,
  • but remains fairly stable in adulthood except in
    cases of morbid obesity.

70
Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy
  • Fat cells grow in size when excess fat is stored
    in the cells as triglycerides.
  • Weight gain in adults is typically characterized
    by the enlargement of existing fat cells, rather
    than the creation of new fat cells.

71
Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy
  • Similarly, caloric restriction and exercise are
    effective in reducing fat cell size, but not the
    number of fat cells.

72
Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy
  • The key to preventing obesity is to closely
    monitor the dietary intake and energy
    expenditure, especially during the adolescent
    growth spurt and puberty.

73
Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy
  • This could potentially retard the development of
    new fat cells and control the size of existing
    fat cells.
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