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BUYER BEWARE

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BUYER BEWARE Advertising Techniques and Social Repercussions Sarah Carter, Nate Eberly, and Lindsay Garrard 3 2 1 1 3 4 Advertisements are everywhere in our day-to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BUYER BEWARE


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BUYER BEWARE
Advertising Techniques and Social Repercussions
Sarah Carter, Nate Eberly, and Lindsay Garrard
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Advertisements are everywhere in our day-to-day
lives. We wake up to commercials on the morning
news, see ads in the newspaper, drive past
billboards and promotional signs, and try
relentlessly to avoid pop-ups and other
advertising on the internet. There is much more
to these advertisements than meets they eye. They
both mirror and reinforce pre-existing social
ideologies. Advertising agencies use cunning
techniques to persuade consumers to buy products
they may not have been interested in otherwise.
Emerging technologies will only strengthen their
influence on society new developments in
nanotechnology and the internet could allow
advertisers to target more specific
consumer-cohorts with more powerful subliminal
messages.
Advertising Inequality
See No Evil, Hear No Evil Subliminal Messages in
Advertising
  • The human mind is easily manipulated. Sensory
    stimuli delivered below an individuals absolute
    threshold are not consciously perceived and can
    be used to convey a message subliminally. In
    advertising, these messages establish a
    connection or familiarity between the product and
    consumer, but are highly controversial.
  • A CHECKERED HISTORY
  • First Uses
  • During WWII the military used subliminal teaching
    techniques and tachistoscopes to train soldiers
    to quickly identify enemy aircraft.
  • During the Cold War, the American public gained
    knowledge that POWs in North Korea were being
    subliminally persuaded to switch sides and gained
    suspicion that commercial industries were
    unfairly manipulating consumers in the same way.
  • The 1950s - American Fears Realized
  • 1957 James Vicary subjected movie goers to
    subliminal messages that read Hungary? Eat
    Popcorn and Drink Coca-Cola. He claimed a 57
    increase in popcorn sales and his study subjected
    subliminal advertising to harsh public scrutiny.
  • Radios soon marketed whisper ads, films
    introduced subliminal flash frames, and
    television stations were boycotted for suspected
    use of subliminal communication.
  • Towards the end of the 1950s various attempts at
    state and federal legislation were made to make
    the use of subliminal techniques in the media
    illegal, but none passed.
  • 1960-1975
  • Vicary admitted to falsifying his results in
    1962.
  • Subliminal messaging lost the focus of the public
    eye, but advertisers continued doing research and
    hid subliminal advertisements beneath the shadow
    of public ignorance.
  • Concerns were sparked again when Wilson Bryan Key
    published his book in 1972 entitled Subliminal
    Seduction on the use of hidden sexual images in
    advertising.
  • In 1974, the FCC claimed that subliminal
    messaging, effective or not, was not in the best
    interest of the public because it stifled freedom
    of choice through deception.
  • Advertisers strive to capture the publics
    attention and link an image and a product in a
    way that will leave a lasting impression in the
    publics mind. Because they must accomplish both
    of these tasks in a very brief period of time,
    advertisers frequently utilize existing social
    stereotypes in their images and slogans.
  • ADVERTISING AND RACE
  • Advertisements both reflect and reinforce racial
    ideologies. Advertisers incorporate pre-existing
    racial stereotypes in their messages to depict a
    certain image or target a specific population.
    In turn, these racialized images help create and
    perpetuate the racial norms.
  • After the abolition of slavery in the US, which
    forced black freed-people to construct a new
    African American identity and white Americans to
    make sense of blacks new role in society,
    advertisers used racialized images in commercial
    advertising to reinforce the black/white binary
    construction of race.
  • AUNT JEMIMA
  • 1890- The Aunt Jemima breakfast foods company
    began using the image of a Southern black mammy
    to promote its products.
  • The earliest depictions of Aunt Jemima
    originated from the black-faced minstrel
    character and reflected the stereotypical
    characteristics of a black mammyshe was
    overweight, uneducated, wore a headscarf and was
    happy to assist Southern white women in any way
    possible (see fig 1).
  • Today, the company still uses Aunt Jemima on its
    labels. However, her figure less resembles a
    mammyshe wears a white collared shirt, pearl
    earrings and has traded a headscarf for a dark
    perm (see fig 2).
  • TRADE CARDS
  • In the late 1870s and early 1880s advances in
    technology for reproducing pictures made possible
    one of the earliest forms of advertising trade
    cards.
  • Trade cards combined visual images with
    advertising slogans.
  • Most trade cards of the time depicted African
    Americans as subservient, poor and unskilled
    laborers. African American children appeared
    cute, comic and dirty. This imagery connoted
    that despite African Americans freedom, they
    would never fully integrate into whites
    superior culture.
  • In 1875, a trade card advertisement for Pears
    Soap showed a clean-clothed white child washing
    the blackness off a wild-eyed African American
    child (see fig 3).

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  • A BREIF HISTORY
  • Very soon after the introduction of the World
    Wide Web, Internet advertising originated since
    it came with countless advantages. A commercial
    online service called Prodigy was the first to
    experiment with online advertising in 1990.
    Online advertising hurt rather than benefited
    another company that followed Prodigy, Canter and
    Siegel, because they used what came to be known
    as spam. Wired magazine then launched HotWired, a
    Web property with an advertising business model
    they created the banner ad because they feared
    their original dimensions would receive backlash.
    It signed on with ATT and launched its site in
    1994. After their success, other sites were quick
    to accept advertising.
  • INTERACTIVITY
  • The internet is the only medium that the user can
    directly engage in. They can interact with the
    product, test it, and even buy it all within a
    few clicks.
  • With some ads, users can complete the process
    without ever leaving the advertisement
  • Games, contests and videos
  • 2. TARGETABILITY
  • Advertisers have the ability to target specific
    audiences through context and content, site
    registration (providing personal information),
    cookies and database mining, profiling and
    personalization/customization, collaborative
    filtering.
  • Ad management solutions help advertisers group
    target audiences by company, age, gender, race,
    SIC codes, geographic location, browser, computer
    platform, and even the and time of activity.
  • Search engines, like Google AdWords, can generate
    ads (smart ads based on certain keywords.
  • 3. TRACKING
  • Computer servers can record IP number of a
    computer, computer platform (Mac, PC, etc.),
    browser (Internet Explorer, Safari, etc.), date
    and time of request, what was requested, and
    referring URL.

Online Advertising

I AM HONEST. I WONT STEAL. STEALING IS
DISHONEST. - A threshold message played at over
1000 stores in the United States
  • In the mid-1960s African Americans protested the
    lack of Black figures in advertising and
    advertisers use of stereotyped images.
    However, some contemporary advertisements are
    still blatantly racist (see fig. 10)
  • Today, most advertising companies strive to be
    much more egalitarian in their depictions of
    race. Many critics believe this multicultural
    approach ignore the very real racial inequalities
    in American society.

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IMAGE SOURCES 1. http//www.subliminalsex.com/1.
2-Benson-4.5webO.jpg 2. http//davidwpeacockthefir
st.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/little_mermaid_ver2
2.jpg 3. www.gawker.com/assets/resources/2008/06/A
J2.jpeg 4. http//www.onewomanmarketing.com/wp-co
ntent/uploads/2009/06/090613-popcorn.jpg 5.
http//static.howstuffworks.com/gif/web-advertisin
g-mapquest-ad.gif 6. http//kaufmann-mercantile.co
m/body-soap/ 7. http//www.auntjemima.com/aj_histo
ry/ 8. Bullock, August. The Secret Sales Pitch.
San Jose, CA Norwich, 2004. Pages 209, 211 9.
http//www.informationarchitects.jp/wp-content/upl
oads/2007/03/413996918_faac24130f.jpg 10.
http//www.adsavvy.org/25-most-racist-advertisemen
ts-and-commercials/
AND IN THE FUTURE? The possibilities for the
future of Internet advertising are endless, but
currently it seems as though increased
integration with other advertising media, namely
television, is likely in the near future.
Personalization will probably also become more
target-specific and coincide more exactly with
the consumers preferences.
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