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Confucian Moral Psychology and Cognitive Science

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Title: Confucian Moral Psychology and Cognitive Science


1
Confucian Moral Psychology and Cognitive Science
Lecture 3
Edward Slingerland University of British Columbia
2
Cognitive Science and Confucian Virtue Ethics
The Situationist Critique and Early Confucian
Virtue Ethics, Ethics 121.2 (January 2011)
390-419. Also selected as a target article for
discussion on the Philosophy blog Pea Soup
http//peasoup.typepad.com/ Of What Use Are
the Odes? Cognitive Science, Virtue Ethics, and
Early Confucian Ethics, Philosophy East West
61.1 (January 2011) 80-109. To be reprinted in
New Directions in Chinese Philosophy (ed. Cheng
Chung-yi and Cheung Chan-fai), Chinese University
of Hong Kong Press, 2013.
my website http//faculty.arts.ubc.ca/eslingerland
/index.html
3
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of
Morals
4
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of
Morals
  • people of sympathetic temper, who take an
    inner pleasure in spreading happiness around
    them
  • amiable, but actions of no genuinely moral
    worth
  • because actions done out of inclination (aus
    Neigung) rather than out of duty (aus Pflicht)

5
Whats so bad about Neigung?
6
Whats so bad about Neigung?
  • arbitrary (subjective)

7
Whats so bad about Neigung?
  • arbitrary (subjective)
  • unreliable (changeable)

8
Whats so bad about Neigung?
  • arbitrary (subjective)
  • unreliable (changeable)
  • heteronomous

9
Whats so bad about Neigung?
  • arbitrary (subjective)
  • unreliable (changeable)
  • heteronomous
  • alien to our true, rational natures

10
Whats so bad about Neigung?
  • arbitrary (subjective)
  • unreliable (changeable)
  • heteronomous
  • alien to our true, rational natures

11
Rationalism
12
Rationalism
  • human reasoning, judgment and decision-making

13
Rationalism
  • human reasoning, judgment and decision-making
  • amodal (not subserved in any significant manner
    by sensory-motor systems or our embodiment)

14
Rationalism
  • human reasoning, judgment and decision-making
  • amodal (not subserved in any significant manner
    by sensory-motor systems or our embodiment)
  • propositional

15
Rationalism
  • human reasoning, judgment and decision-making
  • amodal (not subserved in any significant manner
    by sensory-motor systems or our embodiment)
  • propositional
  • fully conscious (transparent)

16
Rationalism
  • human reasoning, judgment and decision-making
  • amodal (not subserved in any significant manner
    by sensory-motor systems or our embodiment)
  • propositional
  • fully conscious (transparent)
  • cleanly separable from emotions

17
Challenge to rationalism
18
Challenge to rationalism
Embodied cognition challenge to disembodied
rationalism
19
Challenge to rationalism
Embodied cognition challenge to disembodied
rationalism
Traditional Chinese ethics, with its emphasis
on the embodied, social agent
20
Challenge to rationalism
Embodied cognition challenge to disembodied
rationalism
Traditional Chinese ethics, with its emphasis
on the embodied, social agent
  • can be productively brought into dialogue

21
Challenge to rationalism
Embodied cognition challenge to disembodied
rationalism
Traditional Chinese ethics, with its emphasis
on the embodied, social agent
  • can be productively brought into dialogue
  • insights from each can inform, flesh out the other

22
Challenge to rationalism
23
Challenge to rationalism
  • emotions crucial for reason

24
Challenge to rationalism
  • emotions crucial for reason
  • - emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function

25
Antonio Damasio
26
emotion and reason
  • Gage syndrome patients
  • damaged ventromedial prefrontal cortex

27
emotion and reason
  • Gage syndrome patients
  • damaged ventromedial prefrontal cortex
  • higher cognitive faculties intact
  • short- and long-term memories
  • abstract reasoning skills
  • mathematical aptitude
  • performance on standard IQ tests

28
emotion and reason
  • Gage syndrome patients
  • damaged prefrontal cortex
  • higher cognitive faculties intact
  • short- and long-term memories
  • abstract reasoning skills
  • mathematical aptitude
  • performance on standard IQ tests
  • specific impairment ability to experience and
    process emotions

29
emotion and reason
  • Elliot
  • continued to score well above average on IQ test

30
emotion and reason
  • Elliot
  • continued to score well above average on IQ test
  • scored very well on the Kohlbergian scale of
    moral reasoning ability (Standard Issue Moral
    Judgment Interview)

31
emotion and reason
  • Elliot
  • continued to score well above average on IQ test
  • scored very well on the Kohlbergian scale of
    moral reasoning ability (Standard Issue Moral
    Judgment Interview)
  • absolutely useless as real-life reasoner

32
emotion and reason
  • Elliot
  • continued to score well above average on IQ test
  • scored very well on the Kohlbergian scale of
    moral reasoning ability (Standard Issue Moral
    Judgment Interview)
  • absolutely useless as real-life reasoner
  • possessed elaborate theoretical knowledge about
    what he should or could do, but completely unable
    to actually decide what to do

33
emotion and reason
  • Elliot
  • nice controlled experiment of a sort

34
emotion and reason
  • Elliot
  • nice controlled experiment of a sort
  • possesses everything Kant says is necessary

35
emotion and reason
  • Elliot
  • nice controlled experiment of a sort
  • possesses everything Kant says is necessary
  • completely incapable of making rational decisions

36
emotion and reason
  • Elliot
  • nice controlled experiment of a sort
  • possesses everything Kant says is necessary
  • completely incapable of making rational decisions
  • strongly suggests that embodied emotions play a
    foundational role in ethical decision-making and
    practical reasoning

37
Challenge to rationalism
  • Emotions Crucial for Reason
  • emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function
  • moral evaluations and gut reactions

38
moral evaluations gut reactions
  • Hume moral sentiments as foundational
  • moral knowledge the result of immediate feeling
    and finer internal sense (Enquiry)

39
moral evaluations gut reactions
  • Hume moral sentiments as foundational
  • moral knowledge the result of immediate feeling
    and finer internal sense (Enquiry)
  • Jonathan Haidt social intuitionist model of
    moral judgment
  • Haidt, Jonathan. 2001. The emotional dog and its
    rational tail A social intuitionist approach to
    moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108,
    813834

40
moral evaluations gut reactions
  • Hume moral sentiments as foundational
  • moral knowledge the result of immediate feeling
    and finer internal sense (Enquiry)
  • Jonathan Haidt social intuitionist model of
    moral judgment
  • Haidt, Jonathan. 2001. The emotional dog and its
    rational tail A social intuitionist approach to
    moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108,
    813834
  • emotional reactions are often primary causal
    force in moral judgments

41
moral evaluations gut reactions
  • Hume moral sentiments as foundational
  • moral knowledge the result of immediate feeling
    and finer internal sense (Enquiry)
  • Jonathan Haidt social intuitionist model of
    moral judgment
  • neo-Humeans
  • Shaun Nichols. Sentimental Rules. Oxford 2002
  • Jesse Prinz. The Emotional Construction of
    Morals. Oxford 2007

42
moral evaluations gut reactions
  • Hume moral sentiments as foundational
  • moral knowledge the result of immediate feeling
    and finer internal sense (Enquiry)
  • Jonathan Haidt social intuitionist model of
    moral judgment
  • neo-Humeans
  • Hume with evidence

43
Challenge to rationalism
  • Emotions Crucial for Reason
  • emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function
  • moral evaluations and gut reactions
  • foundation role of innate moral emotions

44
innate moral emotions
45
innate moral emotions
  • empathy

46
innate moral emotions
  • empathy
  • justice

47
innate moral emotions
  • empathy
  • justice
  • disgust /shame

48
innate moral emotions
  • empathy
  • justice
  • disgust /shame
  • each of these emotions has its own unique
  • trigger conditions
  • subjective feeling
  • objective behaviors
  • entailments

49
innate moral emotions
  • empathy
  • justice
  • disgust /shame
  • each of these emotions has its own unique
  • trigger conditions
  • subjective feeling modular
  • objective behaviors
  • entailments

50
innate moral emotions
  • empathy
  • justice
  • disgust /shame
  • each of these emotions has its own unique
  • trigger conditions
  • subjective feeling modular
  • objective behaviors
  • entailments
  • does not sit well with idea that moral reasoning
    is amodal and universal

51
Challenge to rationalism
  • Emotions Crucial for Reason
  • emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function
  • strong (moral) evaluations and gut reactions
  • foundation role of innate moral emotions
  • There is No Unitary Self in Charge

52
unitary self
  • Rationalist model of decision-making requires a
    unitary, conscious self
  • the locus of rationality and will
  • maxim follower or utilitarian calculator
  • even if failed ruler (weakness of will), aware
    that it failed

53
no homunculus
54
Challenge to rationalism
  • Emotions Crucial for Reason
  • emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function
  • strong (moral) evaluations and gut reactions
  • foundation role of innate moral emotions
  • There is No Unitary Self in Charge
  • rationales are often ex post facto

55
rationality as lawyer, not legislator
56
rationality as lawyer, not legislator
  • Haidt conscious moral reasoning is usually a
    post hoc construction, generated after a judgment
    has been reached (2001 814)

57
rationality as lawyer, not legislator
  • Haidt conscious moral reasoning is usually a
    post hoc construction, generated after a judgment
    has been reached (2001 814)
  • Tim Wilson 2002 Strangers to ourselves
    Discovering the adaptive unconscious
  • often dont know what were doing or why

58
rationality as lawyer, not legislator
  • Haidt conscious moral reasoning is usually a
    post hoc construction, generated after a judgment
    has been reached (2001 814)
  • Tim Wilson 2002 Strangers to ourselves
    Discovering the adaptive unconscious
  • often dont know what were doing or why
  • when questioned, strongly motivated to concoct
    plausible-sounding but dubious justifications

59
Challenge to rationalism
  • Emotions Crucial for Reason
  • emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function
  • strong (moral) evaluations and gut reactions
  • foundation role of innate moral emotions
  • There is No Unitary Self in Charge
  • rationales are often ex post facto
  • importance of automaticity (top-down control is
    expensive)

60
automaticity
  • evolution seems to have off-loaded the vast bulk
    of our everyday decision-making and
    judgment-formation onto automatic, unconscious
    systems

61
automaticity
  • evolution seems to have off-loaded the vast bulk
    of our everyday decision-making and
    judgment-formation onto automatic, unconscious
    systems
  • because such systems are fast, frugal, and
    reliable

62
automaticity
  • evolution seems to have off-loaded the vast bulk
    of our everyday decision-making and
    judgment-formation onto automatic, unconscious
    systems
  • because such systems are fast, frugal, and
    reliable
  • most of everyday judgment/ decision making is

63
automaticity
  • evolution seems to have off-loaded the vast bulk
    of our everyday decision-making and
    judgment-formation onto automatic, unconscious
    systems
  • because such systems are fast, frugal, and
    reliable
  • most of everyday judgment/ decision making is
  • unconscious

64
automaticity
  • evolution seems to have off-loaded the vast bulk
    of our everyday decision-making and
    judgment-formation onto automatic, unconscious
    systems
  • because such systems are fast, frugal, and
    reliable
  • most of everyday judgment/ decision making is
  • unconscious
  • automatic

65
top-down control
  • the brain systems associated with abstract
    reasoning and cognitive control can, at least
    sometimes, bring these implicit biases and other
    sorts of emotions into consciousness in order to
    modify or override them

66
top-down control
  • the brain systems associated with abstract
    reasoning and cognitive control can, at least
    sometimes, bring these implicit biases and other
    sorts of emotions into consciousness in order to
    modify or override them
  • however it is equally clear that conscious
    self-control is an extremely limited resource

67
top-down control
  • the brain systems associated with abstract
    reasoning and cognitive control can, at least
    sometimes, bring these implicit biases and other
    sorts of emotions into consciousness in order to
    modify or override them
  • however it is equally clear that conscious
    self-control is an extremely limited resource
  • ego depletion (Baumeister)

68
Challenge to rationalism
  • Emotions Crucial for Reason
  • emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function
  • strong (moral) evaluations and gut reactions
  • foundation role of innate moral emotions
  • There is No Unitary Self in Charge
  • rationales are often ex post facto
  • automaticity /top-down control is expensive
  • power of situational effects

69
situation
  • Our behavior is often powerfully and
    unconsciously effected by

70
situation
  • Our behavior is often powerfully and
    unconsciously effected by
  • physical environment (temperature, colors,
    cleanliness)
  • interpersonal environment (posture, dress,
    expression)
  • institutional environment (authority, social
    markers)
  • linguistic environment (priming, framing)

71
situation
  • Our behavior is often powerfully and
    unconsciously effected by
  • physical environment (temperature, colors,
    cleanliness)
  • interpersonal environment (posture, dress,
    expression)
  • institutional environment (authority, social
    markers)
  • linguistic environment (priming, framing)
  • extreme situationist critique (Doris, Harman)
    of personality an exaggeration
  • Slingerland, Edward. 2011. The situationist
    critique and early Confucian virtue ethics.
    Ethics 121 (2)390-419.

72
situation
  • Our behavior is often powerfully and
    unconsciously effected by
  • physical environment (temperature, colors,
    cleanliness)
  • interpersonal environment (posture, dress,
    expression)
  • institutional environment (authority, social
    markers)
  • linguistic environment (priming, framing)
  • extreme situationist critique (Doris, Harman)
    of personality an exaggeration
  • but they are right about attribution error
    regarding relative power of personality and
    environment

73
Challenge to rationalism
  • Emotions Crucial for Reason
  • emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function
  • strong (moral) evaluations and gut reactions
  • foundation role of innate moral emotions
  • There is No Unitary Self in Charge
  • rationales are often ex post facto
  • automaticity /top-down control is expensive
  • Thought is Image-based

74
thought is image-based
75
thought is image-based
  • Barsalou, Lawrence perceptual symbol
    account(1999. Perceptual symbol systems.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 577-609)

76
thought is image-based
  • Barsalou, Lawrence perceptual symbol
    account(1999. Perceptual symbol systems.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 577-609)
  • abstract symbols derived from and always grounded
    in perception

77
thought is image-based
  • Barsalou, Lawrence perceptual symbol
    account(1999. Perceptual symbol systems.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 577-609)
  • abstract symbols derived from and always grounded
    in perception
  • Lakoff Johnson conceptual metaphor theory

78
thought is image-based
  • Barsalou, Lawrence perceptual symbol
    account(1999. Perceptual symbol systems.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 577-609)
  • abstract symbols derived from and always grounded
    in perception
  • Lakoff Johnson conceptual metaphor theory
  • sensory-motor analog patterns basis of abstract
    thought
  • entailments come from analogue, imagistic
    reasoning

79
Challenge to rationalism
  • Emotions Crucial for Reason
  • emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function
  • strong (moral) evaluations and gut reactions
  • foundation role of innate moral emotions
  • There is No Unitary Self in Charge
  • rationales are often ex post facto
  • automaticity /top-down control is expensive
  • Thought is Image-based
  • categories are usually radial / prototype-based

80
Radial / Prototype categorization
  • not Aristotelian categories

81
Radial / Prototype categorization
  • not Aristotelian categories
  • pattern-matching with stored prototypes

82
Challenge to rationalism
  • Emotions Crucial for Reason
  • emotional-somatic reactions perform crucial
    biasing / filtering function
  • strong (moral) evaluations and gut reactions
  • foundation role of innate moral emotions
  • There is No Unitary Self in Charge
  • rationales are often ex post facto
  • automaticity /top-down control is expensive
  • Thought is Image-based
  • categories are usually radial / prototype-based
  • moral reasoning and training are metaphoric /
    analogical

83
learning as imagistic extension
  • moral education involves training
    individualsexplicitly or implicitlyto develop
    more and more sophisticated imagistic models
    (concepts)

84
learning as imagistic extension
  • moral education involves training
    individualsexplicitly or implicitlyto develop
    more and more sophisticated imagistic models
    (concepts)
  • this involves being able to extend them in a
    consistent manner

85
learning as imagistic extension
  • moral education involves training
    individualsexplicitly or implicitlyto develop
    more and more sophisticated imagistic models
    (concepts)
  • this involves being able to extend them in a
    consistent manner
  • primarily through the use of metaphors or
    analogies

86
learning as imagistic extension
  • moral education involves training
    individualsexplicitly or implicitlyto develop
    more and more sophisticated imagistic models
    (concepts)
  • this involves being able to extend them in a
    consistent manner
  • primarily through the use of metaphors or
    analogies
  • both internal moral reasoning and public moral
    debate will often take the form of battling
    metaphors

87
learning as imagistic extension
  • moral education involves training
    individualsexplicitly or implicitlyto develop
    more and more sophisticated imagistic models
    (concepts)
  • this involves being able to extend them in a
    consistent manner
  • primarily through the use of metaphors or
    analogies
  • both internal moral reasoning and public moral
    debate will often take the form of battling
    metaphors
  • Is the U.S. position in Afghanistan a quagmire
    like Vietnam?

88
learning as imagistic extension
  • moral education involves training
    individualsexplicitly or implicitlyto develop
    more and more sophisticated imagistic models
    (concepts)
  • this involves being able to extend them in a
    consistent manner
  • primarily through the use of metaphors or
    analogies
  • both internal moral reasoning and public moral
    debate will often take the form of battling
    metaphors
  • Is the U.S. position in Afghanistan a quagmire
    like Vietnam?
  • Is moral cultivation like carving a willow tree
    into cups and bowls, or like helping a plant to
    grow?

89
In defense of habit
  • if bulk of our everyday cognition is

90
In defense of habit
  • if bulk of our everyday cognition is
  • emotion-based

91
In defense of habit
  • if bulk of our everyday cognition is
  • emotion-based
  • unconscious or semi-conscious

92
In defense of habit
  • if bulk of our everyday cognition is
  • emotion-based
  • unconscious or semi-conscious
  • automatic

93
In defense of habit
  • if bulk of our everyday cognition is
  • emotion-based
  • unconscious or semi-conscious
  • automatic
  • image-based, imaginative

94
In defense of habit
  • if bulk of our everyday cognition is
  • emotion-based
  • unconscious or semi-conscious
  • automatic
  • image-based, imaginative
  • reasonable to conclude that training desirable
    habits might be a more reliable way to ensure
    ethical behavior

95
In defense of habit
  • virtue ethics

96
In defense of habit
  • virtue ethics
  • virtues arguably stable, desirable habits

97
In defense of habit
  • virtue ethics
  • virtues arguably stable, desirable habits
  • despite bad-mouthing that habit gets even among
    virtue ethicists

98
In defense of habit
  • virtue ethics
  • virtues arguably stable, desirable habits
  • despite bad-mouthing that habit gets even among
    virtue ethicists
  • still influenced by the ghost of Kant

99
In defense of habit
  • habits are not unintelligent or inflexible

100
In defense of habit
  • habits are not unintelligent or inflexible
  • goal-dependent automaticity quite effective and
    flexible (when necessary)
  • Bargh et al 2001
  • Chartrand and Bargh 1996

101
cognitive science virtue ethics
  • debate between defenders of virtue ethics,
    utilitarianism and deontology at least 2,500
    years old

102
cognitive science virtue ethics
  • debate between defenders of virtue ethics,
    utilitarianism and deontology at least 2,500
    years old
  • evidence from cognitive science could help at
    least partially settle it

103
Meta-Ethical Aside
  • so just about education, training?
  • NO
  • no such thing as purely cold cognition
  • deontology
  • emotional foundation
  • utilitarianism
  • objective math performed on metaphorical
    entities

104
Confucian virtue ethics
105
Confucian virtue ethics
  • early Confucians never drank the disembodied
    rationality Kool-Aid

106
Confucian virtue ethics
  • early Confucians never drank the disembodied
    rationality Kool-Aid
  • model of moral reasoning, education might have
    something to useful to say in contemporary context

107
Confucian virtue ethics emotion
  • Mencian ethics Morality is based upon emotions /
    gut reactions

108
Confucian virtue ethics emotion
  • Mencian ethics Morality is based upon emotions /
    gut reactions
  • sprouts, hearts, are intelligent emotional
    responses to the perception of value

109
Confucian virtue ethics emotion
  • Mencian ethics Morality is based upon emotions /
    gut reactions
  • sprouts, hearts, are intelligent emotional
    responses to the perception of value
  • even content of the sprouts seems a pretty good
    first approximation

110
Mencian sprouts
  • Ren ?
  • empathetic response like the burenzhixinelicited
    by both real situations (drowning sister in law,
    ox being led to slaughter) and imagined (child
    and well)basic mammalian moral emotion

111
Mencian sprouts
  • Ren ?
  • empathetic response like the burenzhixinelicited
    by both real situations (drowning sister in law,
    ox being led to slaughter) and imagined (child
    and well)basic mammalian moral emotion
  • Yi ?
  • indignant refusal to accept unfair offers in
    Ultimatum Game like beggar in 6A10

112
Mencian sprouts
  • Ren ?
  • empathetic response like the burenzhixinelicited
    by both real situations (drowning sister in law,
    ox being led to slaughter) and imagined (child
    and well)basic mammalian moral emotion
  • Yi ?
  • indignant refusal to accept unfair offers in
    Ultimatum Game like beggar in 6A10
  • Li ?
  • role of disgust in moral judgments (Rozin, Haidt)

113
Other Mencian parallels
  • Moral education is about imaginative extension /
    sympathetic imagination

114
Other Mencian parallels
  • Moral education is about imaginative extension /
    sympathetic imagination
  • primary tool is metaphor and analogy

115
Other Mencian parallels
  • Moral education is about imaginative extension /
    sympathetic imagination
  • primary tool is metaphor and analogy
  • supplemented with ritual, music, prototype
    modeling

116
hot vs. cold cognition
117
hot vs. cold cognition
Hot Cold
emotional non-emotional
fast, frugal slow, expensive
automatic under executive control
mostly unconscious mostly conscious
118
hot vs. cold cognition
Hot Cold
emotional non-emotional
fast, frugal slow, expensive
automatic under executive control
mostly unconscious mostly conscious
gt two systems can and often do interact
119
hot vs. cold cognition
Hot Cold
emotional non-emotional
fast, frugal slow, expensive
automatic under executive control
mostly unconscious mostly conscious
gt relative, not absolute difference
120
hot vs. cold cognition
  • One way to look at Confucian ethics

121
hot vs. cold cognition
  • One way to look at Confucian ethics
  • time-delayed cognitive control

122
hot vs. cold cognition
  • One way to look at Confucian ethics
  • time-delayed cognitive control
  • embedding higher-level desires and goals in
    lower-level emotional and sensory-motor systems

123
hot vs. cold cognition
  • One way to look at Confucian ethics
  • time-delayed cognitive control
  • embedding higher-level desires and goals in
    lower-level emotional and sensory-motor systems
  • i.e., embedding results of cold cognition into
    hot systems

124
E.g., Xunzi and creation of ritual
125
E.g., Xunzi and creation of ritual
  • Discourse on Ritual
  • ????????????,????,?????????????,????????,????

126
E.g., Xunzi and creation of ritual
  • Discourse on Ritual
  • ????????????,????,?????????????,????????,????
  • gt hot cognition run wild!

127
E.g., Xunzi and creation of ritual
  • Discourse on Ritual
  • ??????

128
E.g., Xunzi and creation of ritual
  • Discourse on Ritual
  • ??????
  • hot cognition too!

129
E.g., Xunzi and creation of ritual
  • Discourse on Ritual
  • ??????,???????,?????,????????????,?????????????,??
    ?????

130
E.g., Xunzi and creation of ritual
  • Discourse on Ritual
  • ??????,???????,?????,????????????,?????????????,??
    ?????
  • process of self-cultivation

131
E.g., Xunzi and creation of ritual
  • Discourse on Ritual
  • ??????,???????,?????,????????????,?????????????,??
    ?????
  • process of self-cultivation
  • embeds the fruits of cold-cognition (how to best
    distribute limited resources)

132
E.g., Xunzi and creation of ritual
  • Discourse on Ritual
  • ??????,???????,?????,????????????,?????????????,??
    ?????
  • process of self-cultivation
  • embeds the fruits of cold-cognition (how to best
    distribute limited resources)
  • into hot processes (ritually-transformed desires)

133
Valuing habit over reflection
134
Valuing habit over reflection
  • Xunzis ranking of levels of achievement

135
Valuing habit over reflection
  • Xunzis ranking of levels of achievement
  • scholar-official (shi ?)
  • gentleman (junzi ??)
  • sage (shengren ??)

136
Valuing habit over reflection
  • Xunzis ranking of levels of achievement
  • scholar-official (shi ?)
  • gentleman (junzi ??)
  • sage (shengren ??)

137
Valuing habit over reflection
  • Xunzis ranking of levels of achievement
  • scholar-official (shi ?)
  • gentleman (junzi ??) increasingly hot
  • sage (shengren ??)

138
Valuing habit over reflection
  • Xunzis ranking of levels of achievement
  • scholar-official (shi ?)
  • gentleman (junzi ??) increasingly hot
  • sage (shengren ??)
  • gt effortless action (wuwei ??) as mark of
    highest level of moral achievement

139
Valuing habit over reflection
  • Xunzis ranking of levels of achievement
  • scholar-official (shi ?)
  • gentleman (junzi ??) increasingly hot
  • sage (shengren ??)
  • effortless action (wuwei ??) as mark of
    highest level of moral achievement
  • precisely the opposite of Kants valuation

140
hot vs. cold cognition
  • Characteristic feature of Confucian ethics

141
hot vs. cold cognition
  • Characteristic feature of Confucian ethics
  • replacement of

142
hot vs. cold cognition
  • Characteristic feature of Confucian ethics
  • replacement of
  • exertion of conscious will-power

143
hot vs. cold cognition
  • Characteristic feature of Confucian ethics
  • replacement of
  • exertion of conscious will-power
  • on-line, rational decision-making

144
hot vs. cold cognition
  • Characteristic feature of Confucian ethics
  • replacement of
  • exertion of conscious will-power
  • on-line, rational decision-making
  • with
  • self-activating, carefully-designed, automatic
    habits

145
Confucian ethics
146
Confucian ethics
  • designed a model of moral education that draws
    upon but also reshapes our embodied habits and
    perceptions

147
Confucian ethics
  • designed a model of moral education that draws
    upon but also reshapes our embodied habits and
    perceptions
  • important corrective to fetishization of
    disembodied reason in the last few hundred years
    of Western ethical thought

148
Confucian ethics
  • designed a model of moral education that draws
    upon but also reshapes our embodied habits and
    perceptions
  • important corrective to fetishization of
    disembodied reason in the last few hundred years
    of Western ethical thought
  • empirically plausible and valuable resource for
    contemporary ethical theory and education
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