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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e

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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst Stages 3 and 4 Sleep Slow wave sleep First time through stage ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e


1
Thinking About Psychology The Science of Mind
and Behavior 2e
  • Charles T. Blair-Broeker
  • Randal M. Ernst

2
Cognitive Domain
3
Consciousness Chapter
4
Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms
  • Module 24

5
Consciousness
  • Module 24 Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

6
Consciousness
  • Awareness of yourself and your environment

7
Body Rhythms
  • Module 24 Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

8
Pseudoscientific Claim
  • Any assertion that is not based on science, even
    though in some circumstances attempts are made to
    appear scientific
  • Appears to be scientific but is not

9
Biological Rhythms
  • Periodic physiological fluctuations
  • Can affect physiological functioning
  • Fall into three main categories
  • Circadian Rhythms
  • Ultradian Rhythms
  • Infradian Rhythms

10
Circadian Rhythms
  • Biological rhythms that occur approximately every
    24 hours
  • Example Sleep-wake cycle and temperature

11
Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
  • http//www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid158
    1

12
Circadian Rhythms
  • Play Circadian Rhythms (358) Segment 9 from
    Psychology The Human Experience.

13
Ultradian Rhythms
  • Biological rhythms that occur more than once each
    day
  • Example Stages of sleep throughout the night

14
Infradian Rhythms
  • Biological rhythms that occur once a month or
    once a season
  • Example Womens menstrual cycle

15
Biological Rhythms
  • Play Can You Beat Jet Lag? (644) Segment 15
    from Scientific American Frontiers Video
    Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd
    edition).

16
Sleep and Sleep Deficit
  • Module 24 Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

17
Sleep Deprivation Effects
  • Decreases efficiency of immune system functioning
  • Safety and accident issues
  • Contributes to hypertension, impaired
    concentration, irritability, etc.

18
Sleep Deprivation
19
Sleep Deprivation Studies
  • Play Catching Catnaps (1145) Segment 13 from
    Scientific American Frontiers Video Collection
    for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition).

20
Why We Sleep
  • Module 24 Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

21
Hypothalamus
  • Sleep control center in the brain
  • Monitors changes in light or dark in the
    environment
  • Changes levels of hormones in the body

22
Melatonin
  • Hormone that helps regulate daily biological
    rhythms
  • Linked to the sleep-wake cycle
  • Melatonin level increases during the night and
    decreases with exposure to morning light

23
Reasons for Sleep
  • Two primary reasons
  • Preservation keep us protected from the dangers
    of the night
  • Restoration recuperate from the wear and tear of
    the day

24
Sleep Stages, REM, and DreamingThe Stages of
Sleep
  • Module 24 Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

25
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
  • Machine that amplifies and records waves of
    electrical activity that sweep across the brains
    surface
  • Electrodes placed on the scalp measure the waves

26
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
  • Electrodes are placed on the persons scalp to
    measure the waves
  • Used as a means to measure the stages of sleep

27
EEG
28
Stage 1 Sleep
  • Breathing is slowed.
  • Brain waves become irregular.
  • It is easy to wake the person, who will insist
    they are not asleep.
  • Rarely lasts longer than 5 minutes

29
Stage 1
30
Stages of Sleep
31
Stage 1
32
Stage 2 Sleep
  • Brain wave cycle slows.
  • First time through stage 2 last about 20 minutes.

33
Stage 2
34
Stages 3 and 4 Sleep
  • Slow wave sleep
  • First time through stage 4 is about 30 minutes
    and is where one gets rejuvenated

35
Stage 3
36
Stage 4
37
Sleep
  • http//www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid158
    2

38
Sleep Stages, REM, and DreamingREM Sleep
  • Module 24 Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

39
Non-REM Sleep
  • Stages 1 - 4 considered N-REM (non-REM sleep)

40
REM Sleep
  • Rapid eye movement (REM Sleep) as eyes move
    quickly back and forth
  • Vivid dreaming occurs in REM sleep
  • Considered paradoxical sleep
  • Term coined by William Dement

41
REM Sleep
42
Paradoxical Sleep
  • During REM sleep brain wave patterns are similar
    to when a person is awake
  • Pulse and breathing quickens.
  • REM sleep is sometimes called paradoxical sleep
    as ones physiology is close to that of being
    awake but the brainstem blocks all muscle movement

43
REM Sleep
  • http//www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid158
    3

44
Typical Nights Sleep
45
Stage 4/REM Changes
46
Sleep Changes through Life
47
Sleep Stages, REM, and DreamingWhy Do We Dream?
  • Module 24 Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

48
Information-Processing Theory
  • Dreams serve an important memory- related
    function by sorting and sifting through the days
    experiences
  • Research suggests REM sleep helps memory storage.

49
Physiological Function Theory
  • Neural activity during REM sleep provides
    periodic stimulation of the brain.

50
Activation-Synthesis Theory
  • Dreams are the minds attempt to make sense of
    random neural firings in the brain as one sleeps.

51
Cognitive Development Theory
  • Dreams part of the maturation process
  • Dreams reflect our knowledge
  • Reflection of normal cognitive development

52
Dream Research
  • http//vsx.onstreammedia.com/vsx/pbssaf/search/PBS
    Player?assetId69025ccstart0pt0preview

53
Sleep Disorders and Sleep Problems
  • Module 24 Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

54
Insomnia
  • Recurring problems falling asleep or staying
    asleep
  • Sleeping pills tend to inhibit or suppress REM
    sleep worsen the problem
  • Alcohol suppresses REM sleep also worsens the
    problem
  • Studies show most people overestimate how long it
    took them to get to sleep

55
Sleep Apnea
  • Sleep disorder characterized by temporary
    cessations of breathing during sleep and
    consequent momentary reawakenings.
  • Tend to be loud snorers
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure machine

56
Narcolepsy
  • Sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable
    sleep attacks
  • Person may lapse directly into REM sleep
  • Nervous system getting aroused tends to trigger
    the sleep attack

57
Somnambulism
  • Formal name for sleepwalking
  • Starts in the deep stages of N-REM sleep
  • Person can walk or talk and is able to see
  • Rarely has any memory of the event

58
Night Terrors
  • Sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and
    appearance of being terrified
  • Unlike nightmares
  • Happens during stage 4 sleep mostly children
  • The children seldom remember the event.

59
Other Sleep Disorders
  • Bruxism teeth grinding
  • Enuresis bed wetting
  • Myoclonus sudden jerk of a body part occurring
    during stage 1 sleep
  • Everyone has occasional episodes of myoclonus

60
The End
61
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62
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