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Reptiles and Birds

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Title: Reptiles and Birds


1
Chapter 34
Reptiles and Birds
Section 1 The Reptilian Body
Section 2 Todays Reptiles
Section 3 Characteristics and Diversity of
Birds
2
Section 1
The Reptilian Body
Objectives
  • Describe the key characteristics of reptiles.
  • Relate a reptile's ectothermic metabolism to its
    activity level.
  • Summarize the adaptations that enable reptiles to
    live on land.

3
Section 1
The Reptilian Body
Key Characteristics of Reptiles
  • Features Reptiles have a strong, bony skeleton.
  • Ectothermic Metabolism Reptiles are ectothermic.

4
Section 1
The Reptilian Body
Water Retention
  • Watertight Skin Reptiles have nearly watertight
    skin, which enable them to be terrestrial
    animals.
  • Watertight Eggs Reptiles have nearly watertight
    eggs, which enable them to be terrestrial animals.

5
Section 1
The Reptilian Body
Respiration
  • Lungs Reptiles have paired lungs that have a
    greater surface area for gas exchange than the
    lungs of amphibians.
  • Heart Reptiles have a double-loop circulatory
    system. Most have a ventricle that is partly
    divided into right and left halves, resulting in
    incomplete separation of oxygen-rich and
    oxygen-poor blood.

6
Section 1
The Reptilian Body
Reproduction
  • Fertilization Reptilian fertilization is internal.

7
Section 2
Todays Reptiles
Objectives
  • Compare the four living orders of reptiles.
  • Describe the timber rattlesnake's adaptations for
    locating and capturing prey.
  • Compare the parental care of crocodilians with
    that of other reptiles.

8
Section 2
Todays Reptiles
Lizards and Snakes
  • Snakes and Lizards Snakes and lizards (order
    Squamata) share many characteristics, such as
    periodic molting, but snakes have no legs.

9
Section 2
Todays Reptiles
Other Orders of Reptiles
  • Turtles and Tortoises The shells of turtles and
    tortoises (order Chelonia) are made of fused
    plates of bone covered with horny shields or
    leathery skin.
  • Crocodiles and Alligators Unlike other reptiles,
    crocodilians (order Crocodilia), care for their
    young after hatching. They also have a completely
    divided ventricle.
  • Tuataras There are only two species of tuatara
    (order Rhynchocephalia).

10
Section 3
Characteristics and Diversity of Birds
Objectives
  • Summarize the key characteristics of birds.
  • Describe how a bird's feathers and bone structure
    aid flight.
  • Summarize how a bird's lungs and heart are
    adapted for high efficiency.
  • Relate the structure of a bird's feet and beak to
    its habits and diet.

11
Section 3
Characteristics and Diversity of Birds
Key Characteristics of Birds
  • Endothermy Birds are endotherms. Their high rate
    of metabolism helps them meet the large
    requirements for flight.
  • Feathers A birds contour feathers give the bird
    its shape and aid flight. Its down feathers
    provide insulation.
  • Strong, Lightweight Skeleton The bones of birds
    are thin and hollow, and many of them are fused
    all are adaptations for flight.

12
Section 3
Characteristics and Diversity of Birds
Key Characteristics of Birds continued
  • Endothermic Metabolism Birds are endotherms that
    is, they generate enough heat through metabolism
    to maintain a high body temperature.
  • Completely Divided Ventricle The ventricle of the
    bird heart is completely divided by a septum.
  • Highly Efficient Lungs One-way airflow through
    the lungs provides the large amounts of oxygen
    birds need for flight.

13
Section 3
Characteristics and Diversity of Birds
Adaptations of Birds
  • Adaptations Birds are adapted for different ways
    of life, including beak, leg, and feet
    adaptations.
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