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Disorders of the Endocrine System

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Disorders of the Endocrine System Thyroid Gland Hormone: Thyroxin Overactivity (Too much hormone) Increased metabolic rate Increased food intake but loss of weight ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Disorders of the Endocrine System


1
Disorders of the Endocrine System
2
Thyroid Gland
  • Hormone Thyroxin
  • Overactivity (Too much hormone)
  • Increased metabolic rate
  • Increased food intake but loss of weight
  • Hyperthyroidism (Graves disease)
  • Goiter (swollen neck, maybe bulging eyes)

3
Goiter
4
Thyroid Gland
  • Hormone Thyroxin
  • Underactivity (Not enough hormone)
  • Hypothyroidism (Hashimotos disease)
  • - Reduced metabolic rate
  • Low food intake but gain of weight
  • Myxoedema (when onset in adults)
  • Cretinism (when onset in children)
  • Can also cause a goiter

5
Myxoedema
  • Puffiness (swelling)
  • Fatigue
  • Obesity
  • Dry, thickened skin
  • Mental impairment
  • Thin, brittle hair

6
Cretinism
  • Protuberant abdomen
  • Short Stature
  • Infertility
  • Neurological impairment
  • Constant Fatigue
  • Obesity

7
Thyroid Gland
  • Hormone Calcitonin
  • Overactivity
  • - Increased Bone Ca, decreased Blood Ca
  • - Tetany (nerve problems leading to muscle
    spasms or cramps)
  • Underactivity
  • - Increase Blood Ca, decreased Bone Ca
  • Osteoporosis (brittle bones)
  • Kidney stones

8
Parathyroid Glands
  • Hormone Parathormone (PTH)
  • Underactivity
  • Low Blood calcium, High Bone Ca
  • Tetany
  • Overactivity
  • High Blood calcium, Low Bone Ca
  • Osteoporosis

9
Pancreas
  • Hormone Insulin
  • Overactivity
  • Low blood sugar level ( ?BSL)
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Underactivity
  • High blood sugar level ( ?BSL)
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Diabetes

10
Pancreas
  • Hormone Glucagon
  • Overactivity
  • High blood sugar level ( ?BSL)
  • Diabetes
  • Underactivity
  • Low blood sugar level ( ?BSL)
  • Hyper insulinism

11
Anterior Pituitary Gland
  • Hormone Growth Hormone
  • Overactive
  • Gigantism (children - very tall)
  • Acromegaly (adults - bones skin thicken)
  • Underactive
  • - Dwarfism (very short)

12
Gigantism
  • The man holding the baby in the photo is 8 ft,
    2.5 inches tall

13
Acromegaly
14
Dwarfism
  • Dwarfism occurs when there is short supply of
    GH in childhood. There are two types of dwarfism
    Lorrain and Frohlichs

15
Thyroxin increases metabolic rate
  • Overactive
  • Goiter
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Graves Disease
  • Underactive
  • Goiter
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hashimotos Disease
  • Myxoedema (adults)
  • Cretinism (kids)

16
Calcitonin Increase Ca uptake by bones and
decrease Ca level in blood
  • Overactive
  • Tetany
  • Underactive
  • Kidney Stones
  • Osteoporosis

17
Parathormone (PTH) inc. Ca level in blood, dec.
Ca level in bone
  • Overactive
  • Kidney Stones
  • Osteoporosis
  • Underactive
  • Tetany

18
Insulin dec. blood sugar levels
  • Overactive
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperinsulinism (insulin shock)
  • Underactive
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Diabetes

19
Calcitonin Vs. Parathormone
Calcitonin Parathormone -
Over Reactivity
Under Reactivity
Blood Ca
Blood Ca
Blood Ca
Blood Ca
Tetany
  • Osteoporosis
  • Kidney Stones

Blood Ca
Blood Ca
Tetany
  • Osteoporosis
  • Kidney Stones

20
Glucagon inc. blood sugar levels
  • Overactive
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Diabetes
  • Underactive
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperinsulinism

21
Insulin vs Glucagon
Insulin Glucagon -
Over Reactivity
Under Reactivity
BSL
22
GH - Growth Hormone increases bone growth
  • Overactive
  • Gigantism (children)
  • Acromegaly (adults)
  • Underactive
  • Dwarfism (Frohlichs and Lorrain)

23
MSH - Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone causes
color cells (melanocytes) in skin to darken
  • Overactive
  • Skin darkens
  • Under active
  • Skin will not darken
  • Most severe condition is albinism

24
LH, FSH, ICTH sex hormones in males and females
that aid in sperm or egg (gamete) production
  • Overactive
  • Unknown
  • Underactive
  • Sterility

25
Corticoid imbalances
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26
Corticoids inc. blood pressure, inc. food
metabolism and dec. inflammation
  • Overactive
  • Cushings Syndrome
  • Underactive
  • Addisons Disease
  • Decreased cortisol and/or aldosterone production
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