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The Age of Absolutism in Europe 1600-1715


The Age of Absolutism in Europe 1600-1715 The Thirty Years War Map The Thirty Year s War (1618-1648) Fought between Protestants (Hapsburgs) and Catholics in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of Absolutism in Europe 1600-1715

The Age of Absolutism in Europe 1600-1715
The Thirty Years War Map
The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
  • Fought between Protestants (Hapsburgs) and
    Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
  • Changed the way countries dealt with one another
    national sovereignty was respected for the
    first time
  • England and France became the two dominant powers
    of the 17th Century and led the revolutions in
    science, philosophy and political theory

Europe during the Age of Absolutism
Fought between Protestants (Hapsburgs) and
Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire
Absolutism in France
  • Louis XIV epitomized the absolutist belief that
    the monarchy personified the state
  • Absolutism was created under Cardinal Richelieu
    who secularized France and fostered loyalty to
    the French state

Absolutism in France cont.
  • Cardinal Richelieu centralized power by
    alienating the nobility
  • The greatest threat to the monarchy was the
  • Monarchs created standing armies for the first
  • Louis XIV built the Palace of Versailles as a
    testament to his power and used it to gain
    control of the nobility

Palace of Versailles
Versailles Grande Gallerie
  • Daily routines at Versailles were exploited by
    Louis XIV
  • The nobility competed against each other to
    perform menial tasks for the king

Palace Gardens
(No Transcript)
Versailles Kings Bedroom (right) Palace view
from the side (below right) Gardens extending to
the east of the palace (below left)
Louis XIV and the Arts
  • Moliere, Frances greatest playwright in the 17th
  • Mocked and alienated the aristrocracy in his
  • Received support and funding from Louis XIV

Baroque Art
  • Stylistically complex
  • Meant to evoke emotion by appealing to the senses
  • Berninis sculptures captured figures in the
    state of intense emotion
  • Rembrandt van Rijn rejected traditional
    arrangements for portraits by not giving equal
    prominence to each member of the group

Absolutism in Eastern Europe
  • Tsar Peter I (Peter the Great) of Russia
  • Modernized Russia through Westernization
  • Taxed his subjects heavily to pay for his
  • Killed 1000 members of Streltsy when they tried
    to depose him

St. Petersburg
The Cathedral of the Spilled Blood
17th Century England
  • Constitutionalism not Absolutism ruled
  • English monarchs held accountable to Parliament
  • James I (1603-1625) supported absolute rule
  • Charles I (1625-1649) fought with Parliament over
    money for his wars with Spain
  • Charles II (1660-1685) learned the lessons of his
    predecessors dont mess with Parliament
  • James II (1685-1688) was an unpopular king
    because of his open Catholicism and return to
    absolute rule

The Glorious Revolution (1688)
  • William of Orange, the Dutch monarch was asked by
    the English people to depose their king, James II
  • A bloodless coup ensued as James II fled England
  • Parliament now reigned supreme
  • The Bill of Rights (1689) outlined the powers and
    rights of Parliament

English Bill of Rights 1689
  • Ruler cannot
  • Suspend Parliaments laws
  • Levy taxes without permission
  • Interfere with freedom of speech
  • Penalize a citizen who criticizes the King

Revolutions in Thought
  • The gulf between the church and science widened
    in the 17th Century
  • In 1633 Galileo was tried before the church for
    his theories of heliocentrism (the sun not the
    earth was the center of the universe)
  • Galileo defied the church and was tortured into

The Scientific Revolution
  • From mid 16th to the beginning of the 18th
    Century, a revolution in science would challenge
    how Europeans perceived themselves and the
  • Isaac Newton formulated his Three Laws of Motion
  • William Harvey his human blood circulation
    discoveries challenged the accepted belief that
    the heart worked by divine intervention

The Scientific Method and The Birth of Modern
  • For centuries it was believed that truths were
    arrived at by studying the Bible
  • The 17th Century saw a rise in systematic
    skepticism, experimentalism, and reasoning based
    on observed facts and mathematical laws
  • Francis Bacon direct observation was essential
    to ascertain truth
  • Rene Descartes applied mathematical methods and
    reasoning to philosophy

Thomas Hobbes (1588 1679)
  • English philosopher
  • Wrote Leviathan life began in a state of nature
  • Man is inherently selfish and aggressive
  • Left on own, chaos and conflict would rule
  • Citizens need law and to follow a sovereign to
    avoid chaos

John Locke (1632 1704)
  • English philosopher
  • Believed that over time people would join
    together to benefit from cooperation
  • Through a Social Contract, sovereignty would
    remain with the people

Works Cited
  • Google Images
  • Legacy by Garfield Newman
  • http//