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The Age of Absolutism in Europe 1600-1715

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The Age of Absolutism in Europe 1600-1715 The Thirty Years War Map The Thirty Year s War (1618-1648) Fought between Protestants (Hapsburgs) and Catholics in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of Absolutism in Europe 1600-1715


1
The Age of Absolutism in Europe 1600-1715
2
The Thirty Years War Map
3
The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
  • Fought between Protestants (Hapsburgs) and
    Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
  • Changed the way countries dealt with one another
    national sovereignty was respected for the
    first time
  • England and France became the two dominant powers
    of the 17th Century and led the revolutions in
    science, philosophy and political theory

4
Europe during the Age of Absolutism
Fought between Protestants (Hapsburgs) and
Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire
5
Absolutism in France
  • Louis XIV epitomized the absolutist belief that
    the monarchy personified the state
  • Absolutism was created under Cardinal Richelieu
    who secularized France and fostered loyalty to
    the French state

6
Absolutism in France cont.
  • Cardinal Richelieu centralized power by
    alienating the nobility
  • The greatest threat to the monarchy was the
    nobility
  • Monarchs created standing armies for the first
    time
  • Louis XIV built the Palace of Versailles as a
    testament to his power and used it to gain
    control of the nobility

7
Palace of Versailles
8
Versailles Grande Gallerie
  • Daily routines at Versailles were exploited by
    Louis XIV
  • The nobility competed against each other to
    perform menial tasks for the king

9
Palace Gardens
10
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11
Versailles Kings Bedroom (right) Palace view
from the side (below right) Gardens extending to
the east of the palace (below left)
12
Louis XIV and the Arts
  • Moliere, Frances greatest playwright in the 17th
    Century
  • Mocked and alienated the aristrocracy in his
    plays
  • Received support and funding from Louis XIV

13
Baroque Art
  • Stylistically complex
  • Meant to evoke emotion by appealing to the senses
  • Berninis sculptures captured figures in the
    state of intense emotion
  • Rembrandt van Rijn rejected traditional
    arrangements for portraits by not giving equal
    prominence to each member of the group

14
Absolutism in Eastern Europe
  • Tsar Peter I (Peter the Great) of Russia
    1689-1725
  • Modernized Russia through Westernization
  • Taxed his subjects heavily to pay for his
    projects
  • Killed 1000 members of Streltsy when they tried
    to depose him

15
St. Petersburg
The Cathedral of the Spilled Blood
16
17th Century England
  • Constitutionalism not Absolutism ruled
  • English monarchs held accountable to Parliament
  • James I (1603-1625) supported absolute rule
  • Charles I (1625-1649) fought with Parliament over
    money for his wars with Spain
  • Charles II (1660-1685) learned the lessons of his
    predecessors dont mess with Parliament
  • James II (1685-1688) was an unpopular king
    because of his open Catholicism and return to
    absolute rule

17
The Glorious Revolution (1688)
  • William of Orange, the Dutch monarch was asked by
    the English people to depose their king, James II
  • A bloodless coup ensued as James II fled England
  • Parliament now reigned supreme
  • The Bill of Rights (1689) outlined the powers and
    rights of Parliament

18
English Bill of Rights 1689
  • Ruler cannot
  • Suspend Parliaments laws
  • Levy taxes without permission
  • Interfere with freedom of speech
  • Penalize a citizen who criticizes the King

19
Revolutions in Thought
  • The gulf between the church and science widened
    in the 17th Century
  • In 1633 Galileo was tried before the church for
    his theories of heliocentrism (the sun not the
    earth was the center of the universe)
  • Galileo defied the church and was tortured into
    silence

20
The Scientific Revolution
  • From mid 16th to the beginning of the 18th
    Century, a revolution in science would challenge
    how Europeans perceived themselves and the
    universe
  • Isaac Newton formulated his Three Laws of Motion
  • William Harvey his human blood circulation
    discoveries challenged the accepted belief that
    the heart worked by divine intervention

21
The Scientific Method and The Birth of Modern
Philosophy
  • For centuries it was believed that truths were
    arrived at by studying the Bible
  • The 17th Century saw a rise in systematic
    skepticism, experimentalism, and reasoning based
    on observed facts and mathematical laws
  • Francis Bacon direct observation was essential
    to ascertain truth
  • Rene Descartes applied mathematical methods and
    reasoning to philosophy

22
Thomas Hobbes (1588 1679)
  • English philosopher
  • Wrote Leviathan life began in a state of nature
  • Man is inherently selfish and aggressive
  • Left on own, chaos and conflict would rule
  • Citizens need law and to follow a sovereign to
    avoid chaos

23
John Locke (1632 1704)
  • English philosopher
  • Believed that over time people would join
    together to benefit from cooperation
  • Through a Social Contract, sovereignty would
    remain with the people

24
Works Cited
  • Google Images
  • Legacy by Garfield Newman
  • http//www.historyteacher.net/EuroProjects
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