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BIOL 3300 Vertebrate Zoology: Ectotherms - Herpetology

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Title: BIOL 3300 Vertebrate Zoology: Ectotherms - Herpetology


1
BIOL 3300 Vertebrate Zoology Ectotherms -
Herpetology
http//www.amphibian.com.au/
2
Extant Tetrapod Phylogeny!
  • You should be able to provide a common name
    for each group and describe a MAJOR feature
    of each clade.

3
Extant Tetrapod Phylogeny!
  • Explain what is meant by
  • Reptilia and Mammalia are sister lineages
    among extant amniotes.
  • Include terms synapomorphy, plesiomorphy to
    describe/answer.

4
Figure 1.14 Linnean taxonomy places organisms in
categories based on overall similarity.
Evolutionary taxonomy places organisms in clades
based on relatedness (homologies), which has a
clear time component. A dendogram based on
Linnean taxonomy (a) contains many polytomies
because categories are discreet, (b) can contain
some "species" (AF and GK) that are "equal" in
rank with similar hierarchical organization to
the subfamily level and others (L in particular)
that contain this structure only in name, and (c)
has no time component. Thus species L is in L
subfamily. Dashed lines indicate where the
taxonomic categories would occur for species L. A
dendogram of evolutionary relationships has no
clear genus, subfamily, or family structure but
presents a relatively accurate hypothesis of
known relationships and relative divergence
times. Species are endpoints of divergences.
Because of the implicit lack of a time element,
individual taxonomic groups in the Linnean system
often do not have comparable evolutionary
histories across taxa. For example, a family of
scorpions might have a much deeper (older)
evolutionary history than a family of snakes.
5
Figure 1.15 In evolutionary taxonomy, names of
evolutionary groups of organisms (clades) can be
confusing. Node-based clades are defined as the
most recent common ancestor (the black circle)
and all descendents. For example, Anura is the
most recent common ancestor of Ascaphus and
Leiopelmatidae. Stem-based clades are defined as
those species sharing a more recent common
ancestor with a particular organism (the stem)
than with another. Thus Salientia is all taxa (in
this case Ascaphus and Leiopelmatidae) more
closely related to Anura than to Caudata.
Apomorphy-based clades share a particular unique
character (the bar in the graphic on the right).
Thus Anura would be the clade stemming from the
first amphibian to have a urostyle (a skeletal
feature unique to frogs).
6
Ways to determine phylogeny!
  • What characters could you use to determine
    relatedness or phylogeny?

Morphometric Meristic Qualitative Macroscopic Mic
roscopic Molecular
7
Figure 1.16 An abbreviated cladogram of tetrapods
illustrating monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly.
The heavier lines and capitalized group names
depict the monophyletic groups of Amphibia and
Reptilia recognized in the text. The boxes define
earlier concepts of Amphibia (polyphyletic) and
Reptilia (paraphyletic).
Cladistical terminology!
8
What are the tenets of phylogenetic systematics?
3 criteria 1) 2) 3)
9
Figure 1.8 A branching diagram of the evolution
within the Tetrapoda, based on sister group
relationships. The diagram has no time axis, and
each name represents a formal clade-group name.
After Clack, 1998 Gauthier et al., 1988a,b,
1989 and Lombard and Sumida, 1992 a strikingly
different pattern is suggested by Laurin and
Reisz, 1997.
10
Figure 1.12 A branching diagram of the evolution
within the Archosauromorpha, based on
sister-group relationships. The diagram has no
time axis numerous clades and branching events
are excluded and each capitalized name
represents a formal clade-group name. After
Benton and Clark, 1988 Gauthier et al., 1989
Gower and Wilkinson, 1996 .
11
Figure 1.13 A branching diagram of the evolution
within the Lepidosauromorpha, based on
sister-group relationships. The diagram has no
time axis numerous clades and branching events
are excluded and each capitalized name
represents a formal clade-group name. After
Gauthier et al., 1989 Rieppel, 1994 Caldwell
(1996) and deBraga and Rieppel (1997) provide
different interpretations of lepidosauromorph
relationships.
12
Figure 1.4 Relationships, body forms, and limb
structure of the seven key fossil vertebrates
used to recover the evolution of supportive limbs
in tetrapods. Glyptolepis is the outgroup.
Adapted from Ahlberg and Clack, 2006 Clack 2006
Daeschler et al., 2006 and Schubin et al., 2006.
13
Tetrapod Phylogeny!
  • Acanthostega and Ichthyostega are more closely
    related to

Acanthostega
Tiktaalik
http//universe-review.ca/I10-72-Acanthostega.jpg
haysvillelibrary.wordpress.com
14
Extant Tetrapod Phylogeny!
  • Where would they fit in the cladogram?

15
From H2O to Land!
  • What adaptations were necessary?
  • Many likely evolved while still primarily
    aquatic adaptations vs. exaptations
  • If amphibians evolved from fish then why do we
    still have fish?

16
Figure 3.2 Geological occurrence of some early
tetrapods, and extinct and living amphibians.
Abbreviations for Cenozoic epochs Paleo,
Paleocene Eo, Eocene Oligo, Oligocene Mio,
Miocene Pli, Pliocene Pleistocene is the
narrow, unlabeled epoch on the far right side of
the chart. The Dicamptodontidae is now included
in Ambystomatidae.
17
Figure 3.5 Triadobatrachus massinoti, the
earliest known frog, from the Triassic of
Madagascar. Adapted as a partial reconstruction
from Estes and Reig, 1973. Scale bar 1 cm.
What feature(s) are frog what is missing?
18
Figure 3.8 Vieraella herbstii, an ancient frog
from the Jurassic of Patagonia. Scale bar 2 mm.
Adapted from Estes and Reig, 1973.
19
Figure 3.9 Paleobatrachus grandiceps, a
representative of the extinct Paleobatrachidae,
from the Oligocene of eastern Europe. Scale bar
10 mm. Adapted from Estes and Reig, 1973.
20
Figure 3.7 Karuarus sharovi (about 15 cm TL), the
earliest known salamander, from the Late Jurassic
of Russia. Adapted as a partial reconstruction
from Carroll, 1988.
What feature(s) are salamander what is
missing?
21
Figure 3.10 Geological occurrence of some early
anthracosaurs and amniotes, and extinct and
living reptiles. Abbreviations for Cenozoic
epochs Paleo, Paleocene Eo, Eocene Oligo,
Oligocene Mio, Miocene Pli, Pliocene
Pleistocene is the narrow, unlabeled epoch at the
top of the chart. Asterisk indicates
insuffficient fossil material to depict how long
the taxon persisted.
22
Figure 3.11 Hylonomus lyelli, the earliest known
reptile, from the Early Permian of Nova Scotia.
Size, about 42 cm SVL. Adapted from Carroll and
Baird, 1972.
23
Figure 3.14 Cretaceous sea showing several
typical reptiles, including the turtle Protostega
(left), the mosasaur Platecarpus (largest
reptile), and a plesiosaur (top). The extinct
bony fish Xiphactinus (bottom right) and the
aquatic bird Hesperornis (center right) are also
shown. By Karen Carr, with permission of the Sam
Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History.
24
What are Reptilia features?
  • What is a turtle?

An ancestral turtle from the Late Triassic of
southwestern China Chun Li, Xiao-Chun Wu, Olivier
Rieppel, Li-Ting Wang Li-Jun Zhao Nature 456,
497-501(27 November 2008) doi10.1038/nature07533
25
Figure 3.20 Proganochelys quenstedti, the most
ancient turtle, from the Lower Triassic of
Germany approximately 15 cm CL. From Gaffney,
1990 courtesy of the American Museum of Natural
History.
26
Figure 3.23 The newly described fossil snake
Najash not only has bony elements of the sacrum
and hindlimbs but was also terrestrial/subterranea
n. Combined with other skeletal features, Najash
appears to be sister to all known snakes,
suggesting that snakes had a terrestrial origin
rather than a marine one. Elements of the pelvis
and hindlimbs are shown for Najash, Pachyrhachis,
and the Boinae for comparison. Adapted from
Apesteguía and Zaher, 2006
27
Figure 3.22 The structure of the head of the
fossil snake Pachyrhachis problematicus (upper)
was reconstructed using X-ray computed tomography
(lower image), showing that the skull is indeed
that of a basal macrostomatan snake, which means
that limb loss occurred independently in
different snake clades. Adapted from Polcyn et
al., 2006.
28
  • Define the following terms in a sentence
  • OTU
  • Clade
  • Sister taxa
  • Synapomorphy
  • Type specimen (holotype, paratype, syntype)
  • Phyly (mono, para, poly)

29
Why was the recently discovered fossil of the
tetrapodamorph fish Tiktaalik such an important
find? Why was the amniotic egg such an important
innovation in the evolution of tetrapods?
30
Explain the difference between evolutionary
taxonomy and Linnean taxonomy. Are amphibians
more closely related to fishes or mammals?
31
Describe in detail how the transition from water
to land occurred and what the major morphological
preadaptations (exaptations) were that
facilitated this transition. Describe the early
evolution of caecilians, salamanders, frogs,
turtles, and snakes what key features tie
fossils/extinct forms to extant groups?
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