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Chapter%2018-%20Classification

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Chapter 18- Classification I. Finding order in Diversity A. Why classify? 1. To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter%2018-%20Classification


1
Chapter 18- Classification
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I. Finding order in Diversity
  • A. Why classify?
  •  
  • 1. To study the diversity of life, biologists
    use a classification system to name organisms and
    group them in a logical manner.
  •  
  • 2. Using taxonomy, scientists classify
    organisms and assign each organism a universally
    accepted name.

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  • B. Assigning Scientific Names
  •  
  • 1. By the eighteen-century scientists were
    finding out that calling organisms by their
    common name was confusing.
  •  
  • 2. Carolus Linnaeus developed a two-name naming
    system called binomial nomenclature.

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  • 3. Each species is assigned a two part
    scientific name.
  •  
  • 4. Ex- Homo sapiens

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  •   C. Linnaeus System of Classification
  •  
  • 1. Linnaeuss hierarchical system of
    classification includes seven levels.
  •  
  • 2. From the largest to the smallest- kingdom,
    phylum, class, order, family, genius and specie.

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King Philip Came Over For Good Spagetti
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II. Modern Evolutionary Classificiation
  • A. Which similarities are most important?
  •  
  • B. Evolutionary classification
  •  
  • 1. Biologists now group organisms into
    categories that represent lines of evolutionary
    descent or phylogeny not just physical
    similarities. This is called evolutionary
    classification.

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  • C. Classification Using Cladograms
  •  
  • 1. Characteristics that appear in recent parts
    of a lineage but not in its older members are
    called derived characters.
  • 2. Derived characters can be used to construct
    a cladogram- a diagram that shows evolutionary
    relationships among a group of organisms.

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  • D. Similarities in DNA and RNA
  •  
  • 1. The genes of many organisms show important
    similarities at the molecular level.
  •  
  • 2. Similarities in DNA can be used to help
    determine classification and evolutionary
    relationships.

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DNA-left RNA-Right
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III. Kingdoms and Domains
  • A. The tree of Life Evolves
  •  
  • 1. The six-kingdom system of classification
    includes the kingdoms, Eubacteria,
    Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and
    Animalia.

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  • B. The three- Domain System
  •  
  • 1. The domain is a more inclusive category than
    any other.

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  • 2. The three domains are
  •  
  • a. Eukarya-which is composed of protista,
    fungi, plantae and animals.
  •  
  • b. The domain bacteria, which corresponds to
    the kingdom Eubacteria.
  •  
  • c. Domain Archaea, which corresponds to
    archaebacteria.

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  • C. Domain Bacteria
  • 1. Bacteria are unicellular and prokaryotic
    (does not have a nucleus).
  •  
  • 2. The cell walls contain a substance known as
    peptidoglycan.
  •  
  • 3. These bacteria are ecologically diverse,
    ranging from free-living soil organisms to deadly
    parasites.

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  • 4. Some photosynthesize and some do not.
  •  
  • 5. Some need oxygen and some do not.

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  • C. Domain Archaea
  •  
  • 1. They are also unicellular and prokaryotic.
  •  
  • 2. Bacteria that live in the most extreme
    environments possible.

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  • E. Domain Eukarya
  •  
  • 1. Consists of all organisms that are
    Eukaryotic (cells that have a nucleus)
  •  
  • 2. Protista are eukaryotes that cannot be
    classified as a plant, fungus or an animal.
  •  
  • 3. Members of the kingdom Fungi are
    heterotrophic. Most feed on dead or decaying
    organic matter

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  • 4. Members of kingdom plantae are multicellular
    organisms that are photosynthetic and
    Autotrophic.
  •  
  • 5. Members of the kingdom Animalia are
    multicellular and heterotrophic.

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Protists
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Fungi
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Plants
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Animals
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The End
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