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Chapter 1: Living Things

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Characteristics of Living Things Organized Grow and ... proposed a five-kingdom ... level of classification called domains. The six kingdoms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1: Living Things


1
Chapter 1 Living Things
  • Aim What is the difference between living and
    nonliving things?

2
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Organized
  • Grow and develop
  • Reproduce
  • Respond to stimuli
  • Maintain certain internal conditions
  • Use energy
  • Things that have ALL of these characteristics are
    called organisms

3
  • Organized
  • Made up of small units called cells
  • Cells contain structures with specialized
    functions
  • Some organisms are unicellular (one cell only)
  • Some are multicellular (two or more cells)
  • Each cell contains heredity material and has a
    structure
  • Growth and Development
  • Unicellular organisms grow as the cell increases
  • Multicellular organisms grow as their cells
    increase in number
  • Changes that occur in an organism during its
    lifetime are called development

4
  • Reproduce
  • Reproduction is the process by which one organism
    makes one or more new organisms
  • All organisms reproduce differently
  • Respond to Stimuli
  • All living things respond to changes in their
    environment
  • Changes can be internal or external
  • Internal stimuli ex feeling hungry or thirsty
  • External stimuli ex light and temperature
  • Homeostasis
  • An organisms ability to maintain steady internal
    conditions when outside conditions change

5
  • Ensures that cells can function
  • Energy
  • Cells use energy to transport substances, make
    new cells, and perform chemical reactions
  • Everything an organism does requires energy
  • Energy comes from the sun directly or indirectly

6
Nonliving Things
  • Dont have all of these characteristics
  • Dont need things in order to survive
  • Examples
  • Water
  • Air
  • Rocks
  • Clouds

7
Aim How do we classify living things?
8
Classification
  • Aristotle was one of the first people to classify
    organisms
  • He classified living things into two large
    groups, plants and animals
  • Animals were classified by the presence of red
    blood, animals environment, shape and size of
    the organism
  • Plants were classified according to structure and
    size and whether the plant was a tree, shrub, or
    herb

9
  • Carolus Linnaeus came up with a new system of
    classification based on the structures of the
    organism
  • Organisms were placed into to kingdoms
  • Robert H. Whittaker proposed a five-kingdom
    system.
  • Kingdoms Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and
    Animilia

10
Todays Classification System
  • Is called systematics
  • Uses all evidence known about an organisms to
    classify them
  • Cell type
  • Habitat
  • way organism obtains food and energy
  • structure and function of features
  • Common ancestry
  • Molecules within organism, such as DNA

11
  • This new system led to the development of another
    level of classification called domains.
  • The six kingdoms are separated into one of the
    three domains
  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Eukarya
  • 6 kingdoms are Bacteria, Archaea, Protista,
    Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

12
Aim How do scientists name organisms?
13
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Two-word naming system developed by Linneaus that
    scientists still use today
  • First word identifies the genus of the organism
  • The second word is the species, which may
    describe the organisms appearance or its
    behavior
  • Examples Brown BearUrsus arct0s

14
Using Scientific Names
  • Scientific names are the same worldwide
  • Communication about organisms are more effective
    because of scientific names

15
Aim What tools do we use to help with
classification?
16
Tools for Identifying Organisms
  • Dichotomous keys
  • A series of descriptions
  • Arranged in pairs
  • Identifies an unknown organism
  • Choices continue until the organism is identified

17
  • Cladograms
  • a branched diagram that shows the relationships
    among organisms, including ancestors
  • Has a series of branches
  • Each follows a new characteristics
  • Each characteristic is observed in all the
    species to its right
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