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Notes for Chemistry Unit

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Notes for Chemistry Unit Section 1.1 Chemistry is the study of matter. Matter is made up of extremely tiny particles called atoms and molecules. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Notes for Chemistry Unit


1
Notes for Chemistry Unit
2
Section 1.1
  • Chemistry is the study of matter.
  • Matter is made up of extremely tiny particles
    called atoms and molecules.
  • Atoms and molecules make up the three common
    states of matter on Earthsolids, liquids, and
    gases.
  • The particles of a liquid are attracted to one
    another, are in motion, and are able to move past
    one another.
  • Being a solid, liquid, or gas is a property of a
    substance.

3
Section 1.2 and 1.3
  • Heating a liquid increases the speed of the
    molecules.
  • An increase in the speed of the molecules
    competes with the attraction between molecules
    and causes molecules to move a little further
    apart.
  • Cooling a liquid decreases the speed of the
    molecules.
  • A decrease in the speed of the molecules allows
    the attractions between molecules to bring them a
    little closer together.
  • The way a thermometer works is an example of
    heating and cooling a liquid.

4
Section 1.4
  • In a solid, the atoms are very attracted to one
    another. The atoms vibrate but stay in fixed
    positions because of their strong attractions for
    one another.
  • Heating a solid increases the motion of the
    atoms.
  • An increase in the motion of the atoms competes
    with the attraction between atoms and causes them
    to move a little further apart.
  • Cooling a solid decreases the motion of the
    atoms.
  • A decrease in the motion of the atoms allows the
    attractions between atoms to bring them a little
    close together.

5
Section 1.5
  • In a gas, the molecules have very weak
    attractions for one another. Molecules are able
    to move freely past each other with little
    interaction between them.
  • The molecules of a gas are much more spread out
    and move independently compared to the molecules
    of liquids and solids.
  • Whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas at
    a certain temperature depends on the balance
    between the motion of the atoms or molecules at
    that temperature and how strong their attractions
    are for one another.
  • Heating a gas increases the speed of its
    molecules.
  • Cooling a gas decreases the speed of its
    molecules.

6
Section 2.2 (evaporation) and Section 2.3
(condensation)
  • Evaporation occurs when molecules in a liquid
    gain enough energy that they overcome attractions
    from other molecules and break away to become a
    gas.
  • Adding energy increases the rate of evaporation.
  • Condensation is the process in which molecules of
    a gas slow down, come together, and form a
    liquid.
  • When gas molecules transfer their energy to
    something cooler, they slow down and their
    attractions cause them to bond to become a
    liquid.

7
Section 2.4 (Freezing) Section 2.5 (Melting)
  • Freezing is the process that causes a substance
    to change from a liquid to a solid.
  • Freezing occurs when the molecules of a liquid
    slow down enough that their attractions cause
    them to arrange themselves into fixed positions
    as a solid.
  • Melting is a process that causes a substance to
    change from a solid to a liquid.
  • Melting occurs when the molecules of a solid
    speed up enough that the motion overcomes the
    attractions so that the molecules can move past
    each other as a liquid.

8
Section 2.1 (Conduction, Heat, Temperature)
  • Energy can be added or removed from a substance
    through a process called conduction.
  • In conduction, faster-moving molecules contact
    slower-moving molecules and transfer energy to
    them.
  • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic
    energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance.
  • Heat is the transfer of energy from a substance
    at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower
    temperature.
  • Some materials are better conductors of heat than
    others.

9
Section 3.1 (Density defined)
  • Density is a characteristic property of a
    substance.
  • The density of a substance is the relationship
    between the mass of the substance and how much
    space it takes up (volume).
  • The mass of atoms, their size, and how they are
    arranged determine the density of a substance.
  • Density equals the mass of the substance divided
    by its volume D m/v.
  • Objects with the same volume but different mass
    have different densities.

10
Section 3.2 (calculating volume through
displacement)
  • A submerged object displaces a volume of liquid
    equal to the volume of the object.
  • One milliliter (1 mL) of water has a volume of 1
    cubic centimeter (1 cm3).
  • Different atoms have different sizes and masses.
  • Atoms on the periodic table are arranged in order
    according to the number of protons in the
    nucleus.
  • Even though an atom may be smaller than another
    atom, it might have more mass.

11
Section 3.3 (Density in Liquids) Section 3.4 and
3.5 (sinking and floating) Section 3.6
(Temperature-density)
  • Just like solids, liquids also have their own
    characteristic density.
  • The mass and size of the molecules in a liquid
    and how closely they are packed together
    determine the density of the liquid.
  • The density of an object determines whether it
    will float or sink in another substance.
  • Heating a substance causes molecules to speed up
    and spread slightly further apart, occupying a
    larger volume that results in a decrease in
    density.
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