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Some Ideas For Metrology to Extend Capability and Attract Investors and Users from Methods Development Communities


Some Ideas For Metrology to Extend Capability and Attract Investors and Users from Methods Development Communities Art Ruggles, UTNE – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Some Ideas For Metrology to Extend Capability and Attract Investors and Users from Methods Development Communities

Some Ideas For Metrology to Extend Capability and
Attract Investors and Users from Methods
Development Communities
Art Ruggles, UTNE
Void Distribution and Fluid Mixing Measurements,
Time Averaged.
  • Radiograpy in 2-D, Fixed Source and Detector
  • Radiograpgy in 3-D, Rotating Source and Detector.
  • Radiography in 3-D, Central Sources and Rotating
  • PET Tracers injected in flow, Mixing studies and
    additional Void Distribution Data, Rotating
    detector array.
  • These are additional to more conventional void
    pressure and temperature measurements.
  • Time resolved data would also be nice.

Why Attempt Separate Effects Measurements in
Integral Bundle Tests?
  • Enlarge Tent to Include Methods Development
    community (multiphysics simulation and CFD), with
    more government support.
  • Moves CHF testing toward separate effects testing
    to support more mechanistic modeling basis.
  • Offers larger suite of technology and activities
    for education and research during off-test
  • Can be promoted without risk to primary fuel
    thermal limit test mission.
  • Gives Facility New Features and Forward Looking
    Value (not a resurrection of old testing

OECD-NEA Benchmark Data, BFBT 2005
CT Pixel
15 second average gamma count data for pixel
level void topology. Conventional 1-D Subchannel
methods can be refined to 3-D CFD. Facility by
JNES. US NRC participated.
Quick Look at BFBT facility.
BFBT Benchmark Simulation ResultsTest 4101-61,
Exit Quality 25Baseline
ICONE 17-Tentner and Pointer ANL and CD-Adapco,
Microscopic Distribution
Measured void fraction
Predicted void fraction
This is state of the art for CFD V V.
Channel Averages
Predicted void fraction
Percent Error
Bigger Tent-Modeling VV
  • NEAMS-nuclear energy advanced modeling and
    simulation workshop in May at ANL- AFCI and Gen
    IV focus may change.
  • NRC-INL (Shultz) proposing to formalize CFD VV
    so these tools can reliably be used for NRC
    licensing, expects extensive experimental
    campaign with protocols for experiment design and
    code use for simulation of outcomes.
  • Vendors are already using CFD for design, test
    planning, and to help resolve fuel performance
    issues. NRC needs to be on board with these

Vendor CHF Mission Leverage
  • Void, Flow Distribution, and Diffusivity Data
    Leverage CHF model development
  • Full bundle flow enthalpy and void data allow
    Cross Flow term quantification.
  • Move CHF models from algebraic representations of
    data (W-3), or tabulations (Groeneveld), to 3-D
    physics based simulations.

Education and Facility Utilization
  • NRC has supported education initiatives, Vendors
    also need qualified fuel performance engineers.
  • A standard test section for educational and
    regulatory missions can fill in-between vendor
    test campaigns.
  • Universities may also use facility (user
    facility) for other funded research, including
    instrumentation and methods development research.

No Risk, well almost no risk
  • Vendors are primary customer, They bring their
    own test sections and may develop their own
  • Methods that may activate materials will need to
    be carefully planned and controlled (test review
  • Test spool pieces may be modular to support
    methods that are advantaged by certain material
    properties (low Z or low neutron cross section).

The History of Fuel Performance
Simulation-Predicting the Future
  • Early algebraic models based on Test Data with
    sparse bundle integral information.
  • Mechanistic Models
  • CFD (Fluid Centered Models) requiring more detail
    on velocity and void profiles, and flow dynamics.
  • Multiphysics Models (Thermal, Fluid, Structural)
    which require very dense time coincident data
    fields for verification.
  • Direct Numerical Simulations, which require very
    very dense time coincident data fields for
  • Each level of simulation more closely approaches
    a level of complexity identical to the real

Value Added, Forward Looking Instrumentation Suite
Needs Engineering Development Investment, perfect
for leveraging research and education missions of
Enhanced Capability for CHF Testing, and Methods
JAERI, Annual 2000
The principle shown here requires either the rod
bundle turns, or the neutron beam and camera
rotate around the bundle before the measured
result can be attained.
(2-D Radiography, borrowed with permission,
AER) Application of High Frame-Rate Neutron
Radiography To Liquid-Metal Two-Phase Flow
Y. Saito, K. Mishima Research Reactor Institute,
Kyoto University Y. Tobita, T. Suzuki O-arai
Engineering Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle
Development Institute M. Matsubayashi Tokai
Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy
Institute I.C. Lim, J.E. Cha, C.M. Sim Korea
Atomic Energy Institute
Back Ground
Development of Interfacial Area Concentration
Transport Model
Detailed analyses of multiphase flows under
transient conditions requires interfacial area
transport model
Verification and Improvement of Interfacial Area
Transport Model ?No data on IAC for liquid-metal
two-phase flow ?To obtain information on bubble
coalescence break-up needed for modeling of
IAC source term by measuring IAC, bubble
velocity, bubble diameter, etc. in
liquid-metal two-phase flow Improvement of
accuracy and reliability of SIMMER-III code
?Data on liquid-metal two-phase flow are needed
Development of Interfacial Area Concentration
Transport Model
  • IAC measurement using electrical conductance
  • Evaluation of measurement error using the Monte
    Carlo calculation
  • Development of conductance probes applicable to
    liquid metal
  • Evaluation of measurement error using neutron
  • Measurement in pool forced convection loop
  • Database of IAC for liquid-metal two-phase flow
  • Modeling of interfacial transfer terms

Development of velocity field measurement
  • Development of velocity field measurement method
  • High frame-rate neutron radiography
  • Development of high frame-rate neutron radiography

Schematic of 4-sensor Probe
Teflon coated wire(?127?m)
SUS304 tube (?3.0mm)
Silicon resin coating(300?)
Acupuncture needle (?100?m)
Probe tips
Table Experimental Conditions
Geometry (Riser Downcomer) 24 (I.D.)?150 (H)
Superficial gas velocity 015cm/s
Temperature 150?C
Recording conditions
Neutron Source JRR-3M in JAERI Camera Super10K
512?480pixels I.I. S20 2MCPs Inverter type
I.I. Rec.speed 250fps TG1ms Resolution
Sampling condition for 4-sensor probe
Schematic of the Gas-lift loop
Sampling frequency 10kHz
Processed Bubble Images Obtained by High Frame
Rate NR
(taken at 250 frames/s)
? Cap bubbles or elongated slug bubbles are
dominant ? No stable Taylor bubbles are
Simultaneous measurements
(a) jg2.1cm/s (b) jg9.5cm/s (c) jg39.3cm/s
Table Experimental Conditions
Geometry 100(W)?10(D) ?200(H)
Superficial gas velocity 015cm/s
Temperature 150?C
Initial liquid height 12cm
Density of PbBi 1057 kg/m3
Density of AuCd3 1070 kg/m3
Tracer diameter 11.5mm
Neutron Source JRR-3M in JAERI Camera Super10K
512?480pixels HG-100K
1504?1152pixels I.I. GaAsP 1MCP Inverter
type I.I. Rec.speed 250fps TG1ms Resolution
Schematic of the flat bubble column
Comparison of imaging system
Photoron Super10K (512?480) GaAsP 1MCP
Photoron ultima (256?256) S20 2MCPs
Photoron Super10K (512?480) S20 2MCPs
RedLake HG-100K (1504?1128) S20 1MCP
bubble image
Original image
?cal 0
tracer image
calculated void fraction by ?-scaling method
Measurement Result
b) After griding
a) Raw data
Effect of gas velocity on Liquid Velocity Field
b) jg13.3cm/s
a) jg1.7cm/s
3-D Requires Source in the Flow or Bundle, or
turning bundle. (Returned to AER Presentation
  • Neutron Beam used to excite unstable neutron rich
    nucleus (Target). Targets may be placed in the
    fuel pin simulators.
  • Positron Emitter may be injected into the flow,
    allowing use of well developed PET methods to
    image flow. A positron and electron annihilates
    producing two gammas near 180 degrees apart
    supporting coincidence imaging.

Cyclotron Source for Neutrons and PET Isotopes
  • 7 to 30 MeV Proton Beams are usually used for PET
    isotope generation.
  • Neutrons are treated as an undesirable by-product
    that complicates shielding, 2-3 MeV energies for
    O18-F18 target bombarded with 10.5 MeV Protons.
  • Neutron flux out the back of the target is
    directional and can range to 10 to the 12th per
    cm2 sec.
  • Japanese routinely use cyclotrons for

Eclipse RD Cyclotron, Siemens Medical
Retractable Shields
  • Cyclotron - 22,000 pounds
  • Shields - 60,000 pounds
  • Cabinets - 3,200 pounds
  • Total 85,200 pounds
  • 1 Power Supply Cabinet
  • 1 Control Cabinet
  • 1 Water System Cabinet

Some Candidate Isotopes to Produce for PET O18
to F18 (100 min) N14 to O15 (2 min) O16 to N13
(10 min) N14 to C11 (20 min)
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
P N e n energy
E mc2
Rod Bundle
The Rod Bundle is the Patient, PET Isotopes are
Available withHalf Lives from 2 to 100 Minutes
  • Primary lesion in skin adjacent to left knee.
    Whole-body FDG PETCT shows no distant metastases
    impression Early stage melanoma, F18 in amounts
    allowed to walk out of hospital. Typical quoted
    scan resolution 0.5mm.

Data courtesy of Cancer Imaging and Tracer
Development Program, Dr. David Townsend,
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee/USA
PET Isotope Production Target Optimization
Neutrons (10 to 12th per CM Square-sec)
Beam Guide to Bundle
Cyclotron Target
Positron Emitting Isotope Delivered to Bundle
Cyclotron Target can Produce PET Isotopes and
Neutrons Simultaneously. Siemens Cyclotrons
produce 6 Curies of O15 In 10 seconds.
Rod Bundle Replaces Patient
PET Imaging
Turbulent Mixing Plume Downstream of Spacer Grid
from PET Image.
HPLC Injection of PET Isotope, 1cc/min.
Rod Bundle is the Patient for PET Imaging,
Data are Useful For Method Validation. May
be Useful in Single and Two Phase Flows
Risks for PET Implementation
  • 0.5 MeV Gamma from Positron annihilation cannot
    penetrate much high Z material. A special test
    section segment is required.
  • Large bundles (e.g. 17X17) may also pose
    obstruction to gamma transport to detectors,
    transport simulations are required to evaluate
    efficacy in large bundles.
  • Magnetic field is problematic to Photo Multiplier
    Tubes used in current PET scanners, but next
    generation scanners use solid state photo-diode
    cascades for compatibility with NMR imaging

Incident N Beam from Cyclotron
Neutron Producing Targets in Fuel Simulator
Bundle can make 3-D Imaging Practical