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Chapter%20Twelve%20The%20Early%20Renaissance

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Title: Chapter Twelve The Early Renaissance Author: Joan Watson Last modified by: ddavis Created Date: 3/22/2005 9:24:45 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter%20Twelve%20The%20Early%20Renaissance


1
Chapter Twelve The Early Renaissance
  • The resurgence of classical culture and the rise
    of a new humanism

2
The Character of the Renaissance
  • When was the Renaissance?
  • Jules Michelet
  • Jakob Burkhardt
  • Charles Homer Haskins
  • Florentine Renaissance characteristics
  • Artist as individual seeking fame
  • New artistic realism
  • New growth in economics/trade
  • Florentine banking and commerce
  • Humanism as outgrowth of Classical learning
  • Advancement of self and society through
    intellectual efforts

3
Printing Technology and the Spread of Humanism
  • Aldus Manutius (1449-1525)
  • Humanists collated and corrected manuscripts
  • Vast scope of Greek, Latin, vernacular texts
  • Johann Gutenberg (c. 1395-1468)
  • Print technology and the diffusion of ideas
  • 6-9 million books, 13,000 editions before 1500

4
Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494)
  • Synthesis of all learning yields truth
  • Student of languages and cultures
  • Oration on the Dignity of Man
  • Man bridges gap between heaven and creation
  • Humanity is a great miracle

5
Two Styles of Humanism Niccolò Machiavelli
(1469-1527)
  • The Prince
  • Secular study of political theory
  • Inspired by Republican Rome
  • Realistic pragmatism
  • Success in governing is key to power
  • Wisdom and ruthlessness
  • Christianitys role in politics is disastrous
  • The end justifies the means

6
Florence, Italy Where the Renaissance begins
7
The First Phase Masaccio, Ghiberti, and
Brunelleschi
  • Florentine representative government
  • Arti, senior guilds
  • Wool trade
  • Banking, banking families
  • Stable monetary system
  • Revolutionary Florentine art
  • Renaissance

8
The First Phase Masaccio, Ghiberti, and
Brunelleschi
  • Characteristics of artistic change
  • Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1385-1427)
  • Adoration of the Magi (1423)
  • Conservative International Gothic style
  • Tommaso Guidi, aka Masaccio (1401-1428)
  • The Holy Trinity (c. 1428)
  • Clarity of line, perspective, realism, psychology

9
Medieval Art
10th Century Russian Icon (left) and 14th
Century Florentine Passion (right)
10
Medieval Art in the International Style Note the
bright colors, crowded composition, and rounded
figures No single-point perspective
11
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12
  • a concern with, and technical ability to handle,
    space and volume in a believable way
  • studious approach to model art from that of
    ancient Rome
  • departure from more ethereal mode of medieval
    otherworldliness to a greater concern for human
    realism
  • This is achieved through
  • clarity of line
  • mathematically precise perspective
  • close observation of real people
  • concern for psychological states
  • uncluttered arrangementsartist doesnt fill up
    all available space

13
The First Phase Masaccio, Ghiberti, and
Brunelleschi
  • Masaccio
  • Realistic depiction of human beings
  • The Tribute Money (c. 1427)
  • Profound sense of emotion
  • Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden (c. 1425)
  • brought into existence the modern style

14
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15
The First Phase Masaccio, Ghiberti, and
Brunelleschi
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455)
  • Florence Baptistery, North Door competition
  • Sentiment, mathematical perspective
  • East Doors Gates of Paradise
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1466)
  • Renaissance architecture
  • Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore
  • Gothic Classical Roman influences

16
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18
The First Phase Masaccio, Ghiberti, and
Brunelleschi
  • Foundling Hospital, Pazzi Chapel
  • Classical order
  • Intricate mathematical proportions
  • Serenity
  • Florentine Renaissance style
  • Space, ancient models, human realism
  • Reaffirmation of Classical ideals

19
The pre-Renaissance Gothic style (Notre Dame
Cathedral)
20
Florence Cathedral combines Gothic buttressing
with Roman dome
21
Brunelleschis austere Foundling Hospital
22
Brunelleschis Pazzi Chapel note the
similarities to Romes domed pantheon
Brunelleschis Renaissance Pazzi Chapel
Ancient Romes Pantheon
23
The Medici Era
  • Medici rule of Florence 1434-1492
  • Immense banking fortune
  • Branch banks throughout Western Europe
  • Extensive geographic, sociological influence
  • Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride (1434)

24
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25
The Medici Era Cosimo de Medici (1434-1464)
  • Ancient manuscripts
  • Greek language, philosophy
  • Platonic Academy
  • Search for truth and beauty
  • Marsilio Ficino
  • Platonic Love, Christian Platonism
  • Pater Patriae
  • Patron of the arts

26
The Medici Era Cosimo de Medici (1434-1464)
  • Donatello (1386-1466)
  • Saint George, David, Mary Magdalene
  • Michelozzo (1396-1472)
  • Convent of San Marco
  • Fra Angelico (1387-1455)
  • Annunciation fresco
  • Paolo Uccello (1397-1475)
  • Medici Palace paintings

27
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29
The Medici Era Piero de Medici
  • Ruled Florence from 1464-1469
  • Continued Cosimos patronages
  • Religious and civil art and architecture
  • Medici and the theme of the Magi
  • Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510)
  • Benozzo Gozzoli (1420-1495)

30
The Medici Era Lorenzo il Magnifico
  • Accomplished vernacular poet
  • Ficino, Botticelli, Michelangelo
  • Laurentian patronage of learning
  • University of Pisa
  • The Stadium of Florence
  • Greek as export from Florence

31
The Medici Era Lorenzo il Magnifico
  • Botticelli (1444-1510)
  • La Primavera (Springtime), The Birth of Venus
  • Platonic idealism, Christian mysticism
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
  • Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, Madonna of the Rocks
  • Notebooks
  • Mathematics, natural world and humanity, love for
    beauty

32
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33
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34
Botticellis Birth of Venus modeled on Greek and
Roman statues
35
Leonardo da Vinci The first Renaissance Man
  1. He was a master painter
  2. He was a keen scientist, mastering fields of
    geology, botany, and anatomy
  3. He was a master engineer, designing airplanes and
    helicopters
  4. He was a master mathematician

36
Leonardos Notebooks
From left to right An underwater breathing
machine detailed studies of human anatomy an
artificial wing for human flight (strap it on
and jump off a cliff! dont try this at home)
37
Leonardos The Last Supper Note the
mathematical precision
38
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39
The Medici Era Lorenzo il Magnifico
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti (1476-1564)
  • Cameo carving Madonna of the Stairs
  • Pietá
  • Michelangelos David
  • Statement of idealized beauty
  • Palazzo Vecchio symbol of civic power

40
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41
  • Next class, chapter 13 Popes and Patronage
  • Cellinis Autobiography.

42
The Medici Era Lorenzo il Magnifico
  • Fra Savonarola (1452-1498)
  • Dominican preacher, reformer
  • Laurentian Florence vs. Medieval Piety
  • Inspired many converts
  • Defied papal excommunication, died publicly

43
Women and the Renaissance
  • Humanist education
  • Aristocratic families
  • Families who saw education as priority
  • Rise of printing / accessibility of books
  • Woman writers
  • Upper-class culture
  • Convent life
  • Women criticized for not following traditional
    societal roles

44
Two Styles of Humanism Desiderius Erasmus
(1466-1536)
  • Wandering scholar, author
  • Christian Humanism
  • Classical learning Christian living
  • The Praise of Folly (1509)
  • Attacked religious corruption
  • Sweeping social criticism
  • Outsold only by the Bible in the 16th century

45
Music in the 15th Century
  • Guillaume Dufay (c. 1400-1474)
  • Secularization of the motet, Chanson masses
  • Synthesis of secular and religious
  • Johannes Ockeghem (c. 1430-1495)
  • Classical balance of intellect and emotion
  • Music in Medici Florence
  • No Classical models
  • Platonic and Aristotelian significance
  • Frittola, canto carnascialesco

46
Chapter Twelve Discussion Questions
  • Consider the role of art in Florentine politics.
    In what ways does artistic patronage serve as a
    vehicle for state propaganda? Explain, including
    principal discussions of the socio-religious
    works of Gozzoli and Michelangelo.
  • Contrast the medieval worldview with that of the
    Renaissance. What was the role of the individual
    during the Middle Ages? During the Renaissance?
    What was the role of the artist in each period?
    To what may we attribute the shift in
    perspective? Explain.
  • Citing specific artwork from Chapter Twelve,
    explore the artistic balance between Classical
    and Christian prerogatives. Which of the artists
    in the chapter had the most success balancing
    and/or synthesizing the two ideologies?
  • Compare the two styles of Humanism exemplified by
    Erasmus and Machiavelli. What variation on the
    theme does each provide? Consider the roles of
    Classicism and Christianity in their respective
    approaches.
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