From Empire to Republic - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – From Empire to Republic PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 78a766-ZjEyM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

From Empire to Republic

Description:

FROM EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC OBJECTIVES The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient Rome from about 700 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. in terms of its impact on Western ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:40
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: lcps179
Learn more at: http://www.lcps.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: From Empire to Republic


1
From Empire to Republic
2
Objectives
  • The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient
    Rome from about 700 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. in terms
    of its impact on Western civilization by
  • Assessing the impact of military conquests on the
    army, economy, and social structure or Rome
  • Assessing the roles of Julius and Augustus Caesar
    in the collapse of the Republic and rise of
    imperial monarchs
  • Essential Questions
  • Why did the Roman Republic fail to survive
    challenges by Julius Caesar?
  • How did military conquests alter economic and
    social life in Rome?
  • How did an imperial monarchy come to rule Rome?

3
Growing Inequality and Unrest
  • By 200 B.C. the senate was most powerful ruling
    body in Rome
  • Most senators were aristocracy (Patricians)
  • Directed wars of 3rd and 2nd centuries and took
    control of foreign affairs (consuls job)
  • Senate really controlled by a small number of
    wealthy families.

4
Growing Inequality and Unrest
  • Small farmers were angry at losing land
  • A large number of landless poor in Rome
  • Brothers Tiberius and Gaius Grachhus tried to fix
    the problem
  • They urged the senate to pass a law to give land
    back to farmers
  • The brothers were killed by the senators and the
    law was never passed

5
A New Role for the Army
  • 107 B.C. a new general named Marius recruited new
    soldiers
  • Promised poor land in return for service
  • Army was know not under government control
  • This created a new system that put power in the
    hands of Generals, not the government
  • 82 B.C. Lucius Cornelius Sulla
  • was given power by the senate to command the army
    in Asia Minor.
  • The council of Plebs wanted Marius to have power.
  • A civil war broke out
  • Sulla won control of the Army
  • Was an example for future leaders of how to take
    power

6
Reasons for Decline of the Republic
  • Use of slaves in the production of agriculture
    led to food shortages
  • Roman currency became devalued
  • resulted in inflation
  • Small farmers moved to the cities
  • caused unemployment rates to increase
  • caused food production to decrease
  • Civil war initiated by Julius Caesar

7
Collapse of the Republic
  • For 50 years, Rome was in civil war
  • Three men emerged with power
  • Crassus
  • richest man in Rome
  • Pompey
  • powerful and popular general
  • Julius Caesar
  • military leader
  • 60 B.C.E. the three joined forces to create the
    first triumvirate.
  • A government with three people who have equal
    power
  • Division of power
  • Crassus ruled Spain (where he died in battle in
    53 B.C)
  • Pompey ruled Syria
  • Julius Caesar ruled Gaul (where he won several
    military campaigns)
  • After Crassus death, Senate voted for only Pompey
    to rule, Caesar refused.
  • He took his army and crossed into Italy crossing
    the Rubicon River.

8
The First Triumvirate Crassus Pompey
Caesar
9
Rise and Fall of Julius Caesar
  • Caesar and Pompey armies fought a civil war.
    Caesar was victorious
  • Caesar returned to Rome and became a dictator in
    45 B.C.
  • He reformed the economy by giving land to the
    poor
  • Increased the Senate to 900 members, which
    weakened its power
  • Planned several building projects
  • In 44 B.C. he was assassinated by the senators

10
The Second Triumvirate
  • After Caesars death three men fought for power.
  • Octavian (Caesars nephew)
  • Marc Antony (Caesars friend)
  • Lepidus (Commander of Calvary)
  • Triumvirate never worked well
  • Lepidus died
  • Antony and Octavian split empire
  • New Conflict
  • Antony allied with Cleopatra, the Egyptian Queen
  • Octavian and Antony fought at the Battle of
    Actium in 31 B.C.
  • Antony and Cleopatras armies were crushed and
    both committed suicide
  • Octavian at age 32 became the only leader of Rome

11
Lepidus Octavian Marc Antony
12
Age of Augustus
  • The end of the civil war between Octavian and
    Antony lead to the end of the Roman Republic.
  • Octavian renamed himself Augustus Caesar
  • 1st true Emperor of Rome
  • He restored power to Senate
  • Was very popular and the Senate gave him the
    title Imperator (commander in chief of army)

13
Age of Augustus
  • Maintained a standing army of 150,000
  • Only Roman citizens could be legionnaires
  • Set up a praetorian guard of 9,000 men to guard
    the emperor
  • Expanded and unified the empire
  • Was defeated in Germany
  • Proved that Romes power was limited

14
Early Empire
  • Augustus allowed future emperors to choose a
    successor
  • 1st four emperors came from his family
  • Tiberius
  • Caligula
  • Claudius
  • Nero
  • These emperors took more power from the senate
    for themselves and became greedy and corrupt

15
Emperors of the Early Empire
  • Nero
  • Had people killed if he didnt like them (mom)
  • Took more power away from senators
  • Finally, the Roman legions revolted
  • Nero committed suicide
  • Which led to the 5 good emperors

16
Emperors of Early Empire
  • Good Emperors
  • Nerva
  • Trajan
  • Hadrian
  • Antonius Pius
  • Marcus Aurelius
  • Created a period of peace and prosperity called
    the Pax Romana (Roman Peace)
  • Lasted for almost 100 years
  • Emperors were fair, created new programs for the
    public, peaceful, created public works, but also
    took more power from senate.

17
Extent of Empire
  • Rome expanded during early empire
  • While the empire expanded into Dacia,
    Mesopotamia, and the Sinai peninsula the emperors
    knew it was too large
  • Hadrian withdrew forces and strengthened defenses
  • Built a wall across Britain and connected the
    Rhine and Danube Rivers

18
Extent of Empire
  • Empire largest during this time
  • Covered 3 ½ million miles
  • Population of 50 million
  • Cities spread Roman culture, law, and the Latin
    language
  • Roman culture mixed with existing Greek culture
    to created Greco-Roman civilization

19
Economic and Social Conditions
  • Empire was extremely wealthy from trade
  • Rome participated in the Silk Road and traded
    with places as far as China
  • Still most people were farmers
  • Large estates called Latifundia controlled
    farming in south and central Italy
  • Used mainly slave labor
  • Raised sheep and cattle
  • Big gap between rich and poor
  • Small farmers became dependent on latifundia
  • Thousands of unemployed poor were starving in
    Rome
  • Wealthy lived lives of leisure and luxury

20
Impact of the Pax Romana
Political Economic Social
Created many government jobs for the unemployed called civil service jobs Uniform system of money helped expand trade Life more stable
Developed uniform system of law to make justice equal throughout the empire Safer roads helped improve and increase travel and trade throughout the empire Increased emphasis on the family
Prosperity and stability increased for most people in the empire
21
Objectives
  • The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient
    Rome from about 700 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. in terms
    of its impact on Western civilization by
  • Assessing the impact of military conquests on the
    army, economy, and social structure or Rome
  • Assessing the roles of Julius and Augustus Caesar
    in the collapse of the Republic and rise of
    imperial monarchs
  • Essential Questions
  • Why did the Roman Republic fail to survive
    challenges by Julius Caesar?
  • How did military conquests alter economic and
    social life in Rome?
  • How did an imperial monarchy come to rule Rome?
About PowerShow.com