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Do Now

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Do Now 1. No living organism lives in isolation. What evidence do you have that living things require each other? (Provide 3 examples) 2. What area of biology studies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Do Now


1
Do Now
  • 1. No living organism lives in isolation. What
    evidence do you have that living things require
    each other? (Provide 3 examples)
  • 2. What area of biology studies this?

2
ECOLOGY Chapter 2
3
Objectives
  • Explain what ecologists study.
  • Determine the difference between abiotic and
    biotic factors.
  • List and describe the different levels of
    organization.

4
Introduction Activity!!
  • Make a list of your observation from this clip!.

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vlXjI2kuNkhE
5
What is Ecology?
  • Ecology
  • Study of relationships among living organisms and
    the interaction the organisms have with their
    environments
  • Ecologists observe, experiment, and model using a
    variety of tools and methods

6
Abiotic vs. Biotic
  • Biotic Factors
  • Living factors in an organisms environment
  • Ex.
  • Abiotic Factors
  • Nonliving factors in an organisms environment
  • Ex.
  • Organisms depend on and adapt to survive in the
    abiotic factors present in their natural
    environment.

7
Think-Pair-Share
  • List the abiotic and biotic factors in this
    environment. Try to list at least 3 each.

8
Levels of Organization
  • Levels increase in complexity as the numbers and
    interactions between organisms increase.
  • Organism
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Biome
  • Biosphere

9
1. Organism
  • A single living thing
  • Ex.

10
2. Population
  • Several organisms of the same species sharing
    space at the same time
  • Ex.
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vljqgyJxtdU0

11
3. Community
  • Group of interacting organisms sharing space at
    the same time
  • Ex.

12
4. Ecosystem
  • Biological Community and abiotic factors in it
  • Ex.

13
5. Biome
  • Large group of ecosystems that share the same
    climate and similar types of communities
  • Ex.

Tundra
Marine
Desert
Rainforest
Deciduous Forest
14
6. Biosphere
  • Part of Earth that supports life

15
Think-Pair-Share
  • Come up with an analogy starting with your
    favorite animal for each level of organization.

16
Think-Pair-Share
  • How do you think scientists study ecology?
  • Design an experiment for the following
  • A. Measure the effect of algae on a goldfish
    population in Lake Erie
  • B. Venus fly traps react to rising carbon dioxide
    emissions in the rainforest
  • C. Research what happens when a gap in the forest
    is formed.

17
Do Now
  • List the abiotic and biotic factors in this
    picture (3 of each!)

18
Do Now
  • What are Biotic Factors?
  • What are Abiotic Factors?
  • Which factors do organisms adapt to in order to
    survive in their environment?
  • What are the levels of organization in ecology?
    Simplest to most complex

19
Objectives
  • SWBAT differentiate between habitat and niche
  • SWBAT provide examples of symbiotic, competition,
    and predation relationships.
  • SWBAT differentiate between commensalism,
    parasitism, and mutualism.

20
Ecosystem Interactions
  • A habitat is an area where an organism lives.
  • A niche is the role or position that an organism
    has in its environment.
  • How it meets its needs for food, shelter, and
    reproduction.

21
Community Interactions
  • 1) Competition Occurs when more than one organism
    uses a resource at the same time (ex prey, soil,
    sunlight)
  • Intraspecific competition between organisms of
    the same species.
  • Interspecific competition between organisms of
    different species.

22
Examples of Competition
  • Interspecific- https//www.youtube.com/watch?v38n
    wQ0ydExs
  • Intraspecific-
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJgSc-jtO5iEfeature
    related
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vVDhNutbXpFE

23
Community Interactions
  • 2) Predation An individual of one species,
    called the predator, eats all or part of an
    individual of another species called the prey.

24
Predation
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vH5z6pGrNsiM
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vx0rk5zh7RaE

25
Community Interactions
  • 3) Symbiotic Relationships when 2 or more
    organisms live together.
  • - Mutualism
  • - Commensalism
  • - Parasitism

26
Symbiosis
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vzSmL2F1t81Q

27
Mutualism
  • Both organisms benefit

28
Commensalism
  • One species benefits, the other is unaffected

29
Parasitism
  • Host is harmed and the parasite benefits

30
Parasitism
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vvMG-LWyNcAs

31
Do Now
  • Please grab white boards.
  • Then define Mutualism, parasitism, and
    commensalism

32
What type of symbiosis?
  • Humming birds feed on nectar from flowers.
    Flowers are pollinated.

33
What type of symbiosis?
  • Snapping shrimp have poor vision and depend on
    their goby fish roommate to give the danger
    signal when predators come.

Goby fish who dont have a place to hide are
quickly eaten. The find a snapping shrimp
roommate who digs a hole form them both to live.
34
What type of symbiosis?
  • Athletes foot fungus lives on the skin of humans
    and feeds on a protein called keratin. Humans
    have itchy, cracked skin which can become
    infected.

35
What type of symbiosis?
  • Snails die and leave behind their shells. Hermit
    crabs find shells left by snails..

36
Lets try some examples
What is the name for a group of interacting
populations that occupy the same area at the
same time? A. ecosystem B. habitat C.
biological community D. biotic collection
The act of one organism consuming another
organism for food is _______. A. predation B.
parasitism C. commensalism D. mutualism
Which are biotic factors in a forest
environment? A. plants and microscopic
organisms living in the soil B. pH and salt
concentration of the soil C. sunlight, soil
type and soil nutrients D. temperature, air
currents and rainfall
Which defines habitat? A. all of the biotic
factors in an ecosystem B. an area where an
organism lives C. an area in which various
species interact D. the role or position
that an organism has
37
Practice!
  • Get with a partner and work on a review of
    section 2.1
  • SAVE THIS WORKSHEET! WE WILL FINISH IT TOMORROW

38
Match the following types of relationships to
their examples
A. Commensalism 1. Hawks eat small snakes.
B .Mutualism 2. Leeches drain away your lifeblood and leave you with a scar.
C. Predation 3. Frog sits on a lilly pad to help it reach its prey. The lilly pad is not harmed.
D. Parasitism 4. The bacteria that live in tree roots create a source of usable nitrogen for the tree and a safe environment for the bacteria.
E. Competition 5. Several species of birds use the same trees to nest.
39
Do Now
  • What are the various types of relationships?
    Provide the definition and examples of each!

40
Objectives
  • To explain how organisms get their energy.
  • To define the different types of autotrophs and
    heterotrophs.
  • To construct a food web.

41
Organization of Matter and Energy
  • Autotrophs- make their own food (chemosynthesis
    and photosynthesis)
  • Heterotrophs- consume other organisms for energy

42
Autotrophs are also known as Producers
43
Consumers
  • Herbivores- eat ONLY producers

44
Consumers
  • Carnivores- eat ONLY other consumers

45
Consumers
  • Omnivores- consume plants and animals

46
Consumers
  • Scavengers-
  • Feed on dead animal and plant material
  • Detritivores
  • Feed on the garbage in the ecosystem
  • Decomposers
  • Release digestive enzymes

47
Scavengers
  • Feed on organisms that have recently died

48
Decomposers
  • Break down complex molecules
  • Make nutrients available to autotrophs
  • Recyclers

49
Organization of Matter and Energy
  • Food Chain models the energy flow through an
    ecosystem.
  • A food chain only follows just one path as
    animals find food.
  • Each step in a food chain or food web is called a
    trophic level.

50
Food Chain Flow of Energy
51
But as food is eaten, heat is released!
52
Food Web
  • A food web is interconnected food chains and
    pathways in which energy flows through a group of
    organisms.
  • A food web shows the many different paths plants
    and animals are connected.

53
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54
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vbW7PlTaawfQ

55
Think-Pair-Share
  • 1. With the person sitting next to you.. Create a
    food chain with at least 4 different levels.
  • Must include Grass.
  • 2. SWITCH partners and combine your 3 food chains
    to form a food web.

56
Conclusion Activity
57
Do Now
  • Match the following types of relationships to
    their examples

A. Commensalism 1. Hawks eat small snakes.
B .Mutualism 2. Leeches drain away your lifeblood and leave you with a scar.
C. Predation 3. Frog sits on a lilly pad to help it reach its prey. The lilly pad is not harmed.
D. Parasitism 4. The bacteria that live in tree roots create a source of usable nitrogen for the tree and a safe environment for the bacteria.
E. Competition 5. Several species of birds use the same trees to nest.
58
Do Now
  • Please hand in your Biome survival labs in the
    bin up front.
  • Please grab a pen or pencil and go to your
    testing seats.
  • Good Luck! ?

59
Do Now
  • How long are food chains?
  • What is the difference between food chains and
    food webs?
  • What are autotrophs? Examples?
  • What are heterotrophs? Examples of EACH!
  • What percentage of energy is transferred between
    each tropic level? What percentage of that energy
    is lost? What is it lost as?

60
Objectives
  • To explain what an ecological pyramid is and what
    information it can give us.
  • To understand the water cycle and its impact on
    life.
  • To determine how both carbon and nitrogen are
    used and cycled.

61
Ecological Pyramids
  • Diagram that can show the relative amounts of
  • energy
  • biomass
  • numbers of organisms
  • Biomass- Total mass of living matter at each
    trophic level

AT EACH TROPHIC LEVEL!
62
Ecological Pyramids
  • 90 of all energy is not transferred to the level
    above (energy is consumed at current level)
  • Bio mass and of organisms decrease at each
    level

63
Cycles
  • Biogeochemical cycle- exchange of matter through
    the biosphere.
  • Energy is transformed into usable forms
  • Cycling of nutrients in the biosphere involves
  • Matter in living organisms
  • Physical processes found in the environment
  • Ex. weathering

64
QUICK!
  • Q Why is it important to living organisms that
    nutrients cycle?
  • A Cycling makes nutrients available for other
    organisms to use.
  • Q What would happen if matter bound in living
    matter and never recycled?
  • A Nutrients would eventually be depleted and
    life would cease to exist!

65
Water cycle
  • What processes are involved?

66
Water cycle
67
Water Cycle
  • Water in the atmosphere is called water vapor.
  • Water vapor rises, cools, and condenses into
    droplets(Condensation)
  • Water falls from the clouds as rain, sleet, or
    hail (Precipitation)
  • Ground water and runoff from land surfaces flow
    into streams, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
  • This will evaporates into the atmosphere
    (Evaporatation)
  • 90 evaporates from oceans, lakes and rivers.
  • 10 evaporates from surface of plants
    (Transpiration)

68
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69
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen needed to make proteins
  • Consumers get nitrogen by eating plants or
    animals that contain nitrogen.
  • Nitrogen is returned to the soil in several ways
  • 1. Animals urinate.
  • 2. Organisms die.
  • 3. NitrificationOrganisms in the soil
    (nitrogen fixing bacteria) convert ammonia
    into nitrogen compounds (nitrites then
    nitrates). Nitrates will be used by plants.
  • 4. Nitrogen Fixation Conversion of nitrogen
    from atmosphere into ammonia Ex. Lightening
    bolts.
  • 5. Denitrification takes nitrates and converts
    it back to gas into the atmosphere.

70
(No Transcript)
71
Nitrogen Fixation
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v4NKGS4bj7cc

72
Do Now
  • How do humans influence the environment?
  • Is this positive or negative?
  • List some examples!

73
Human Impact
  • Humans have influenced about 83 of Earths
    surface
  • Does this seem like a lot or a little?
  • Some areas are more vulnerable than others why?

74
Human Impact
  • Global population trends have an impact
  • Todays global population approx. 7 billion
    people
  • Year 230036 billion
  • How will a growing population affect peoples
    access to food, water, and fuel? Wildlife
    habitats?

75
Activity!
  • You may work with a partner, or work
    individually.
  • If you finish early, you may begin on your
    homework by measuring your own ecological
    footprint!
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