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## Topic 2: Measuring Earth

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### Topic 2: Measuring Earth How can we determine the shape of the Earth? What evidence do we have about the shape of the Earth? What are the parts or layers of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic 2: Measuring Earth

1
Topic 2 Measuring Earth
• How can we determine the shape of the
Earth?
• What evidence do we have about the shape of
the Earth?
• What are the parts or layers of the Earth?

2
What is the true shape of the Earth?
• The true shape is an oblate spheroid. It is
bulging at the equator and slightly flattened at
the poles.

3
What are the dimensions of the Earth?
• 40,008 Km
• 12,714 Km
• 12,756 Km
• 40,076 Km

4
What evidence do we have that proves the Earth is
round?
• Space photos
• satellites in space take pictures which show the
Earth to appear smooth round.
• Motions of ships sailing towards the horizon
• Ships sailing toward the horizon seem to
disappear from bottom to top.

5
Shape of Earths shadow during a lunar
eclipse - The Earth casts a curved shadow on
the moon during a lunar
eclipse. Altitude of Polaris - Polaris remains
fixed over the north pole but as a person changes
latitude so does the altitude of Polaris.
What evidence do we have that proves the Earth is
round continued?
6
What evidence is there that the Earth is not
perfectly round?
• If the Earth was perfectly round the gravity
measures would be that same, a person would weigh
the same everywhere, but they dont, objects
weigh slightly more at the poles and slightly
less at the equator.

7
How would you describe the smoothness of Earths
surface?
• It is very smooth compared to its diameter.

8
What are the outer spheres of the Earth?
• Atmosphere- the layer of gases that surrounds the
Earth.
• Lithosphere- The layer of rock that forms the
solid outer layer.
• Hydrosphere- The layer of liquid water which lies
between the atmosphere and the lithosphere.

9
What are the characteristics of the
atmosphere?
• Composed mainly of gases (nitrogen oxygen)
• The least dense outer layer.
• The atmosphere is layered (stratified)
• Troposphere
• Stratosphere
• Mesosphere
• Thermosphere
• The boundaries between the
• layers are called pauses
• All clouds and air traffic are
• located in the troposphere.

10
What are the characteristics of the hydrosphere?
• This layer makes up 70 of the Earths surface
• This layer is thin, it is only 3.8 Km thick
• Composed of the H2O (Hydrogen Oxygen)
• H2O is mainly oceans

11
What are the characteristics of the lithosphere?
• This layer is about 100 Km thick
• It is divided into sections called plates
• The upper portion of the lithosphere is called
the crust.
• Crust that is broken up and contains organic
matter, it is called soil.