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Early Empires of South Asia

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Title: Muslim Expansion into India Author: default Last modified by: Sussman, Adam Created Date: 4/4/2011 3:04:07 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Empires of South Asia


1
Early Empires of South Asia
2
Identifying Essential Information
  • Read pages 183-186
  • Using any note taking technique we have used in
    class
  • Identify
  • Leaders
  • Accomplishments
  • Decline
  • of the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire

3
Maurya Empire
  • From 321-200 BC
  • Chandragupta Maurya founded empire
  • Major Accomplishments
  • United Northern Plains large empire
  • Government tax collecting, trade, military
  • Architecture buildings, palaces
  • Economy irrigation, trade (international and
    domestic)
  • Religion spread of Buddhism

4
(No Transcript)
5
Ashoka 269B.C -232 B.C.
  • Brought empire to height of its power
  • Buddhism and Ashoka
  • Ashoka Video 641
  • Crash Course 1216 530 in or 934 Gupta

6
Ashoka
  • Ashoka Video

7
(No Transcript)
8
Ashoka 269B.C -232 B.C.
  • Brought empire to height of its power united
  • Military power
  • He embraced Buddhism after witnessing the mass
    deaths of the war of Kalinga
  • Around 100,000 Kalinga civilians and more than
    10,000 of Ashokas own warriors died during this
    battle.
  • Tolerance
  • All faiths deserve to be honored for one reason
    or another
  • Promoted Buddhism
  • spread to missionaries to China and Southeast
    Asia diffusion built stupas

9
Asoka
Ashoka's Major Rock Edict at Junagadh contains
inscriptions by Asoka
Asoka
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33
inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as
boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor
Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign
from 269 BCE to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are
dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day
Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan and
represent the first tangible evidence of
Buddhism. The edicts describe in detail the first
wide expansion of Buddhism through the
sponsorship of one of the most powerful kings of
Indian history.
Sanchi Gate and Stupa, built at time of Asoka
10
Ashokas Pillars
  • All the pillars were placed at Buddhist
    monasteries, many important sites from the life
    of the Buddha and places of pilgrimage

11
Ashoka's Major Rock Edict at Junagadh contains
inscriptions by Ashoka
Asoka
The four animals in the Lion Capital are believed
to symbolize different phases in Lord Buddhas
life.. National Emblem of India
Sanchi Gate and Stupa, built at time of Asoka
12
Decline
  • After Ashokas death empire lasted 50 more years
  • Followed by 500 years of unrest with many invaders

13
Gupta Empire
  • From 320-535 AD Northern India
  • Trade (land and Sea) Peace and prosperity
  • Leader Chandragupta I
  • Major Accomplishments
  • Government well organized, tolerance, Hindu
  • Art Architecture buildings, palaces,
    paintings of daily life, literature
  • Mathematics 0 (placeholder), size/shape
    earth, Arabic numerals (based on 10), astronomy
    (calculated solar year 365.358   only three
    hours over the figure calculated by modern
    scientists.)
  • Trade with Arabs diffusion
  • Gupta Video 700

14
(No Transcript)
15
Decline
  • Conquered by the Huns from Central Asia
  • The Huns were a nomadic group of people
  • 1000 years of fighting among rival Indian princes

16
Muslim Expansion into India
  • File Folder Activity Document

17
Muslim Expansion into India
  • Second significant migration to
  • South Asia

18
Expansion
  • Starting in 600s Muslim invaders to South Asia
  • Mongols, Turks, Afghans, Persians

19
Delhi Sultans
  • Sultan -Muslim ruling monarch
  • From 1200-1500
  • No forced conversion special taxes (jizya) on
    non-Muslims
  • Major Accomplishments
  • Government toleration, military, services
    (education, irrigation, hospitals)
  • Sultan Firuz Tughlak
  • Architecture buildings, palaces
  • Economy irrigation, trade with Middle East
  • Religion Islam cause of future conflicts

20
Mongol Invasion
  • 1398 Tamerlane
  • Timur the Lame
  • Destroyed and left

21
Mongol Invasion
  • Destroyed and left
  • Timur's army of 90,000 crossed the Indus River in
    September, 1398 and set upon India. The country
    had fallen to pieces after the death of Sultan
    Firuz Shah Tughluq (r. 1351 - 1388) of the Delhi
    Sultanate, and by this time Bengal, Kashmir and
    the Deccan each had separate rulers.
  • Mongol invaders left carnage along their path
    Delhi's army was destroyed in December, and the
    city ruined. Timur seized tons of treasure and 90
    war elephants
  • The lightning speed with which Tamerlanes
    armies struck Delhi was prompted by their desire
    to escape the stench of rotting corpses they were
    leaving behind them.
  • Sultans back in power for short time but
    fragmented

22
Incompatibilities BETWEEN ISLAM AND HINDUISM
  • Hinduism
  • Islam
  • Polytheistic -worship many gods,
  • caste system
  • born into the religion- no idea of conversion
  • Diet
  • cow is sacred
  • Monotheistic - worship one God
  • all people are seen as equal under the eyes of
    God
  • dietary restrictions
  • proselytizers-seek to convert others
  • Creedal - statement of beliefs

23
Mughal Empire Crash Course Mughal 1143
  • Also Mongol
  • Mughal Persian word for Mongol
  • Last Muslim Empire in South Asia
  • 1527 1800s at height united most of South
    Asia
  • Founded by Babur Battle of Panipat descendant
    of Timur

24
Akbar the Great
25
900
Video Link
26
Akbar the Great 1556-1605Crash Course Mughal
1143
  • Golden Age of Mughal Empire
  • Ruling innovations - compromise
  • religious toleration
  • Eliminated tax on non-Muslims
  • Hindus in government
  • Supported Hindu poets/artists
  • Cultural Blending
  • Architecture Indian style
  • Urdu language Hindi and Persian

27
Akbar the Great 1556-1605
  • Divine Faith combination of several faiths
    universal religion
  • Hope to end religious conflict
  • Died with Akbar
  • No mass conversion to Islam

28
(No Transcript)
29
Shah Jahan
30
Taj Mahal
  • Shah Jahan Akbars grandson
  • Agra mausoleum to his wife Mumtaz Mahal
  • hal

Taj Video show
31
Shah Jahan 512
32
(No Transcript)
33
Taj Mahal
  • Year of Construction 1631 - 1632Completed In
    1653Time Taken 22 yearsBuilt By Shah Jahan
    Dedicated to Mumtaz Mahal the wife of Shah
    JahanLocation Agra (Uttar Pradesh) Building
    Type Islamic tomb

34
Taj Mahal 400
35
Virtual Tour Dome Cenotaphs Taj Video
show Taj Video show
Taj Mahal Mosque
Virtual Tour
National Geographic Secrets of the Taj Mahal
Whole Video Start 137 525 add Shah Jahan to
525 - Then 2800 3800
36
Results of Mughal
  • Diversity is the norm
  • Cultural blending
  • Separation will be emphasized

37
Mughal Decline
  • By 1700s
  • Wasteful spending
  • Loss of tolerance
  • Tax on Hindus, closed Hindu schools, Hindus out
    of government
  • Aurangzeb (31 November 1618 3 March 1707) Crash
    Course Mughal 1143
  • Aurangzeb
  • notable expansionist Aurangzeb's
  • Orthodox Islam
  • policies partly abandoned the legacy of tolerance
    - jizya
  • Rebellions and wars lead to decline of
    centralized control
  • Hindu princes revolted
  • Civil war among Muslim princes
  • All weakened empire opened the door for
    Europeans
  • British East Indian Company

38
Identify similarities between the Empires
  • Maurya, Gupta, Mughal
  • Crash Course Mongols 1100
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