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Carbohydrates

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Title: Carbohydrates


1
Carbohydrates
2
Organic Molecules
  • Giant molecules are called Macromolecules
  • Most macromolecules are Polymers
  • Polymer large molecules consisting of many
    identical or similar subunits strung together
  • Subunits of a polymer are Monomers

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4
Dehydration Synthesis
  • Monomers are linked together by Dehydration
    Synthesis
  • The net effect of this process is the removal of
    a water molecule for each monomer in the chain
  • This type of reaction is called a Dehydration
    Synthesis

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Joining Two Monomers
  • Two monomers join when one monomer loses an -OH
    and the other loses a H
  • Energy is required
  • This process occurs only with the help of enzymes

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8
Disassembling Polymers
  • Polymers are disassembled to monomers by
    Hydrolysis
  • Bonds between monomers are broken down by the
    addition of water
  • H from water attaches to one monomer and the -OH
    attaches to the other
  • This is the reverse of Condensation Synthesis
    Ex. Digestion

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4 Major Classes of Organic Compounds
  • 1. Carbohydrates
  • 2. Lipids
  • 3. Proteins
  • 4. Nucleic Acids

11
Carbohydrates
  • Includes all sugars and their polymers
  • Simplest form Monosaccharide (simple sugars)
  • Double Sugar Disaccharide (made up of 2
    monosaccharides) joined by a dehydration
    synthesis reaction
  • Polymers of many sugars Polysaccharide

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Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
14
Monosaccharides
  • General Formula is CH2O
  • The number of these units ranges 3-7 carbons long
  • Most common Monosaccharide is GLUCOSE C6H12O6
    which is a major cellular fuel.

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Monosaccharide Functional Groups
  • Hydroxyl attached to each Carbon except one
  • One carbon is double bonded to oxygen to form a
    carbonyl group
  • Depending on the location of the carbonyl, a
    sugar is either
  • aldehyde
  • ketone
  • alcohol

17
  • Glucose is an ALDOSE (hexose)
  • Fructose is a KETOSE (hexose)

18
  • Another source of diversity in simple sugars is
    the spatial arrangement of their parts around
    symmetric carbon atoms
  • In aqueous solutions, glucose and other sugars
    form rings.
  • Glucose is broken down to yield energy in
    cellular respiration.
  • Monosaccharides are the building blocks for
    synthesis of other smaller organic molecules.

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Disaccharides
  • Double sugars that consist of 2 monosaccharides
    joined by dehydration synthesis and a covalent
    bond between monosaccharides
  • Examples
  • Maltose 2 Glucose (beer, seed germination)
  • Lactose Glucose Galactose (milk)
  • Sucrose Glucose Fructose (plant sugar)

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Oligosaccahrides
  • Short chains made of 2 or more monomers
  • When 3 or more monomers are present they are
    sometimes attached as side chains to proteins and
    aid in membrane function

23
Polysaccharides
  • Made up of a few 100 to a few 1,000
    Monosaccharides
  • Can be straight or branched chains

24
Storage Polysaccharides
  • Used as a storage material. Ex. Starch - consists
    of only glucose and can be hydrolyzed when needed
    to produce sugar
  • Simplest form of starch Amylose - unbranched
  • Plants store starch to save up sugars carb.
    Banking for long term energy needs

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Animal Energy Needs
  • Most animals have enzymes to hydrolyze plant
    starch to make glucose available as a nutrient
    for cells
  • Animals produce/store Glycogen, a highly branched
    polymer of glucose, as their energy storage form.
  • Humans store glycogen in the muscles liver
    cells.

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Animal Energy Needs
  • Humans hydrolyze the glycogen to release glucose
    when sugar demand increases
  • The Bank depletes within a day but gets
    replenished by eating more food.

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Structural Polysaccharides
  • Used for support
  • ex. Cellulose - found in Cell Wall of plant
    cells. Its one of the most abundant organic
    compounds on Earth
  • Cellulose is tough insoluble

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Cellulose
  • Like starch, cellulose is a polymer of glucose,
    but the configuration of the ring form of glucose
    differs.
  • In cellulose, the glucose monomers are in the
    Beta configuration. This means that the hydroxyl
    is locked above the plane of the ring.

33
Starch
  • In starch the glucose monomers are in the alpha
    configuration. This means that the hydroxyl is
    locked below the plane of the ring.
  • This variation in geometry of starch and
    cellulose allows each to have different
    properties.

34
Enzymes
  • Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing the
    alpha bonds are unable to hydrolyze the beta
    linkages of cellulose.
  • Humans dont have the enzymes that can break the
    beta link.
  • Cellulose then becomes undigestable dietary fiber
    (roughage)

35
Put in your NOTECARDS
  • 1. Explanation of Dehydration Synthesis
  • 2. Explanation of Hydrolysis
  • 3. The General Formula for a Carbohydrate
  • 4. Explain the difference between a
    Monosaccharide and a Polysaccharide
  • 1 NOTECARD
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