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Developmental Theory

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Title: Developmental Theory Author: All Mankind Description: Part 2 Last modified by: Gary Novak Created Date: 2/26/1997 7:15:56 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Theory


1
Developmental Theory
  • Chapter 2

2
The Importance of Theories
  • Organize bring Coherence to views
  • Worldviews overarching viewpoints that bias our
    observations
  • Peppers Worldviews
  • Mechanistic
  • Organismic
  • Contextualistic (Behavioral Systems Theory)

3
Dimensions on Which Theories Differ
  • Structure vs. function
  • Description vs. explanation
  • Nature vs. nurture
  • Continuity vs. discontinuity

4
Dimensions on Which Theories Differ
  • Description versus Explanation
  • Explanation
  • Prediction
  • Control
  • Circular Explanations
  • Reification
  • Putting the cause inside the child
  • Behaviors become explanations
  • e.g., dyslexia autism
  • Real Explanations
  • Under what conditions? not Why?

5
Nature versus Nurture
  • False Dichotomy
  • How do nature and nurture interact
  • Not How Much?
  • Nature nurture are both a function of selection
    by consequences (Skinner)
  • Nature nurture are not causes but processes and
    products (Oyama).

6
Judging Developmental Theories - Nine Criteria
  • 1) Accuracy
  • 2) Clarity
  • 3) Predictability
  • 4) Practicality
  • 5) Internal Consistency
  • 6) Parsimony
  • 7) Testable
  • 8) Productivity
  • 9) Self-Satisfying

7
Group Research Designs in Studying Behavioral
Development
  • Cross-sectional
  • Problems- Cohort Effects
  • Longitudinal
  • Problems-
  • Practice Effects
  • Selective Attrition
  • Sequential Combination of Cross-Sectional
    Longitudinal

8
The problem with using age as a variable
  • Age is an empty variable
  • Focus should be on the process variables that
    produce behavior and are correlated with age.

9
Behavioral research methods Single Subject
Designs
  • Functional Analysis- manipulate variables to see
    cause-effect relations.

10
Behavioral Research Designs
  • ABAB reversal design
  • Multiple-treatments (alternating treatments)
    design
  • Multiple treatments designs
  • Changing Criterion designs
  • Combined within between subjects designs

11
ABehavioral Systems Approach
12
Transaction of 5 Factors
  • Genetic-Constitutional Make-up
  • History of Interactions
  • Current Physiological Conditions
  • Current Environmental Conditions
  • Behavioral Dynamics

13
Principles of Dynamical Systems
  • Multiple Determination
  • Multiple Determination means Equifinality
  • Models of Development
  • Nonlinearity
  • Phase Shifts Developmental Stages
  • Coalescent Organization
  • Selectionism
  • Behavioral Attractor States
  • Developmental Trajectories

14
Multiple Determinism
  • Transaction of 5 Factors
  • Sensitivity to Initial Conditions - Butterfly
    Effect
  • Leading Parts - Disproportionate Influence
  • Impossible to predict outcomes
  • Equifinality is the norm

15
Equifinality

16
Models of Development
17
Linear Model
18
Transactional Model
A
B
19
Nonlinear Model
20
Emergent Properties Phase Shifts
  • Sudden, nonlinear changes (e.g., A to X)
  • Qualitative Difference
  • Result of Coalescent Organization
  • Result is Organized
  • When Universal, called Stage

21
Coalescent Organization
  • Multiple Determinants
  • Coming together of all conditions leads to
    reorganization of organism/behavior

22
Selectionism Organization by Consequences
  • Phylogenic Selection Changes in species
  • Ontogenic Selection Changes in individuals
    (learning)
  • Cultural Selection Changes in cultures
  • Any selection requires variability

23
Selectionism - 3 Requirements
  • Variability (Response Classes)
  • Selection
  • Ontogenic - Natural Selection
  • Phylogenic - contingencies of learning
  • Retention (Physiology)

24
Behavioral Attractors
  • Organized patterns of behavior
  • Soft (loose) assemblies
  • Assembled by Consequences
  • Form (Structure) follows Function

25
Developmental Trajectories
  • Behavioral Momentum
  • Stability vs. Phase Shifts

26
Behavioral Cusps not Stages
  • Cusps are important new behaviors that emerge
    that enable the development of many other
    behaviors. (e.g., walking reading).

27
An Organism-Environment Model (Horowitz, 1987)
  • Organismic Dimension
  • Impaired to unimpaired
  • Vulnerable to nonvulnerable
  • Environment Dimension
  • Non-facilitative to facilitative

28
The transaction of organismic environmental
variables produces
  • Developmental Outcome
  • Minimal to Optimal
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