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The Movement of Ocean Water

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Title: The Movement of Ocean Water


1
The Movement of Ocean Water
  • Currents

2
  • Ocean Current
  • movement of ocean water that follows a regular
    pattern
  • influenced by
  • weather
  • Earths rotation
  • position of continents

3
  • Surface current
  • horizontal movement of ocean water caused by wind
  • occurs at or near oceans surface
  • controlled by
  • global winds
  • Coriolis effect
  • continental deflections

4
  • Global Winds
  • winds that blow across Earths surface that
    create surface currents
  • different winds cause currents to flow in
    different directions

5
  • Coriolis Effect
  • Earths rotation causes wind and surface currents
    to move in a curved path

6
  • Continental Deflections
  • when surface currents meet continents, the
    currents deflect (change direction)

7
  • Taking Temperatures
  • warm-water currents begin near equator carry
    warm water to other parts
  • cold-water begins close to poles carry cold
    water to other parts

8
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9
  • Deep Currents
  • stream-like movement of ocean water far below
    surface
  • not controlled by wind
  • forms where water density increases
  • density affected by salinity and temp

10
  • Increasing Density
  • Increasing Salinity (Freezing)
  • cold air chills water, increases density, cold
    water sinks
  • when water freezes, salt gets squeezed out at
    surface and enters liquid below
  • increases density

11
  • Increasing Salinity (Evaporation)
  • warm climates, water evaporates, leaves salt
    behind
  • increases density, sinks to form deep current

12
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13
Currents and Climate
14
Surface Currents
  • Warm-Water
  • Currents that create warm climates in coastal
    areas that would otherwise be much cooler

15
  • Cold-Water
  • Keep coastal areas cooler than inland climate

16
  • Upwelling
  • Movement of deep, cold, and mineral-rich water to
    surface of the ocean
  • Nutrients support the growth of plankton and
    animals that eat plankton

17
  • El Niño
  • Effects of El Niño
  • Change in water temperature in the Pacific Ocean
  • Produces a warm current
  • Alters weather patterns
  • Causes disasters (flash floods, mudslides,
    droughts)
  • Prevents upwelling off the coast of South America

18
  • Studying El Niño
  • La Niña
  • Important due to its effects on land and on
    organisms
  • Scientists use a network of buoys along the
    equator that record data
  • Cooler than normal temperatures in the Pacific
    ocean

La Niña
El Niño
19
Waves
20
Anatomy of a Wave
  • Wave
  • Crest
  • Trough
  • Made up of crests and troughs
  • Highest point of a wave
  • Lowest point of a wave

21
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22
Wave Formation and Movement
  • Wave Formation
  • Wave Movement
  • Most are formed when the wind blows and transfer
    its energy to the water
  • As wind blows, water particles move up and down
    in circular motion
  • The water itself stays behind

23
Specifics of Wave Movement
  • Wave speed
  • Wave Period
  • All waves travel at different speeds
  • Use an equation to calculate wave speed
  • Time between the passage of two wave crests (or
    troughs) at a fixed point

24
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25
Types of Waves
  • Deep-water waves
  • Shallow-water waves
  • Move in water deeper than one half their
    wave-length
  • When deep-water waves interact with ocean floor

26
  • Shore Currents
  • Undertow
  • When waves crash on the beach head on
  • The water moved from this wave flows back into
    the ocean under the new incoming waves
  • Movement of water from a shore current moving
    back into the ocean
  • Pulls objects with the current

27
  • Longshore Currents
  • Travel near or parallel to the shore line
  • Form when waves hit the shore at an angle
  • Transport most of the sediment in beach
    environments

28
  • Open-ocean waves
  • Whitecaps
  • Form in the open ocean
  • 2 Types
  • Whitecaps
  • Swells
  • White, foaming waves
  • Very steep crests
  • Break in the open ocean before reaching the shore

29
  • Swells
  • Tsunami
  • Rolling waves that move steadily across the ocean
  • Form when a large volume of ocean water is
    suddenly moved up or down
  • Caused by underwater earthquakes

30
  • Storm Surges
  • Local rises in sea level near the shore that are
    caused by strong winds from a storm
  • The storm blows water into a big pile under the
    storm
  • As the storm moves onto shore, so does the giant
    mass of water beneath it

31
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32
Tides
33
The Lure of the Moon
  • Tide
  • Daily changes in the level of ocean water
  • How often a tide occurs and the difference in
    tide levels depend on the position of the moon as
    it travels around Earth

34
  • High Tides
  • Low Tides
  • When part of the ocean is facing the moon, the
    water there and on the opposite side of Earth
    bulges towards the moon
  • Water is taken from these areas to form high tides

35
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36
  • Timing of tides
  • Occur at different times each day because Earth
    rotates quicker than the moon revolves around
    Earth

37
Tidal Variations
  • The Sun
  • Tidal Range
  • Also effects tides
  • Combination of sun and moon position in relation
    to Earth causes tidal ranges
  • Differences in ocean levels at high and low tides

38
  • Spring Tide
  • Neap Tide
  • Largest daily tidal range
  • Occur during full and new moons
  • Sun, Moon, and Earth are aligned
  • Smallest daily tidal range
  • Occur during 1st and 3rd quarters of the moon
  • Sun, Moon, and Earth form a 90 angle

39
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40
  • Tidal Bore
  • Occurs in coastal areas with narrow inlets
  • Body of water rushes up through a narrow bay,
    estuary, or river channel during the rise of a
    high tide
  • Causes a very sudden tidal rise

41
What is Climate?
42
  • Weather
  • Climate
  • daily conditions of the atmosphere
  • temp, wind, precipitation, humidity vary day to
    day
  • average weather conditions in an area over time

43
  • Latitude
  • Solar Energy
  • distance north of south from equator
  • energy from the sun
  • hits most directly at the equator most
    indirectly at the poles

44
  • Seasons
  • seasons change due to the tilt of the Earths
    axis
  • tilt affects how much solar energy an area
    receives
  • near equator and poles have little to no seasonal
    change

45
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46
  • Prevailing Winds
  • Mountains
  • winds that blow mainly from one direction
  • affects precipitation in areas
  • affects both temperature and precipitation of
    areas on either side of mountain

47
  • Large Bodies of water
  • Ocean Currents
  • affects an areas climate
  • water absorbs and releases heat slower than land
  • helps to moderate temp of land around it
  • surface currents carry warm or cool water to
    coastal areas

48
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49
  • Climate Zones
  • Biome
  • three major zones
  • tropical
  • temperate
  • polar
  • large zone characterized by climate, types of
    plants and animals

50
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51
Changes in Climate
  • Ice Age
  • Volcanic Eruptions
  • long period of climate cooling
  • ice covered large areas of land
  • creates shield or dust and ash that blocks suns
    rays and cools climate

52
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53
  • Asteroid Impact
  • Suns Cycle
  • acts like a volcanothrows debris (dust) into air
    that blocks sun cools climate
  • sun follows 11-year cycle
  • has periods of high and low radiation

54
  • Global Warming
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • gradual increase in average global temp
  • natural process
  • warming of planet due to gases in atmosphere
  • essential for maintaining temp on surface

55
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • human activities increase gases
  • gases trap and hold more heat
  • result warmer planet and climate changes
  • carbon dioxide main contributor to climate
    change
  • major greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, water
    vapor, methane, nitrous oxide

56
  • Consequences of global warming
  • positive impacts
  • longer growing seasons
  • more comfortable climates in cold areas
  • fewer cold-related deaths

57
  • negative impacts
  • rising sea levels (due to melting ice) causing
    loss of land
  • more severe weather (hurricanes, tornados,
    floods, droughts)
  • species extinction species unable to adapt to
    climate changes
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