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Animal Kingdom One of 5 Kingdoms

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Animal Kingdom One of 5 Kingdoms what are the others? Invertebrates (8 phyla) Vertebrates = Phylum Chordata Let s start at the very beginning . . . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Kingdom One of 5 Kingdoms


1
Animal KingdomOne of 5 Kingdoms what are the
others?
  • Invertebrates (8 phyla)
  • Vertebrates Phylum Chordata

2
Lets start at the very beginning . . .
  • Phylum Chordata is divided into three subphyla
  • Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates)
  • Subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets)
  • Subphylum Vertebrata

3
What is a Chordate?
  • All chordates have 4 basic features that are
    present at some point during their life cycle
  • Hollow Nerve Cord Nerve cord in which nerves
    branch out at regular intervals dorsal nerve
    cord
  • Notochord (backbone) Long supporting rod that
    runs throughout body
  • Paired structures (gill slits )in throat
  • Muscular Tail Extends beyond anus (tailbone)
  • Only 4-5 of animals are chordates
  • Examples Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds

4
The Generalized Structure of a Chordate
Section 30-1
5
Subphylum Vertebrates
  • Can be divided further into 5 classes
  • Classes of Vertebrates include
  • Cold blooded (ectotherm)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Fish
  • Warm blooded (endothem)
  • Mammals
  • birds

6
Fish Basic Facts
  • Fish live in nearly every single aquatic habitat
    imaginable
  • Fish are aquatic vertebrates characterized by
    fins, scales, and gills
  • Fish were the first vertebrates to evolve.
  • Fish bring in Oxygen rich water through gills and
    remove oxygen poor water through gill slits
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Four chambered heart
  • Swim bladder controls buoyancy
  • Most are egg laying (external/internal
    fertilization)
  • Most move by contracting opposite muscles

7
Fertilization
  • Many fish lay eggs
  • External fertilization
  • Process in which a sperm joins with an egg
    OUTSIDE of the body
  • Internal fertiliation
  • Process in which sperm join with an egg inside
    the body

8
Groups of Fish
  • Jawless Fish
  • Have mouths of soft tissue with no true teeth.
  • Have no bones
  • Only vertebrates with no vertebral column as
    adults
  • Lampreys, Hagfish
  • Chondrichthyes
  • Skeleton built entirely of cartilage
  • Sharks, sea rays
  • Osteichthyes
  • Bony Fish have swim bladders
  • Majority of fish fall in this order
  • Carp, sea horse, perch, etc.

9
Swim bladders
  • Bony (Osteichthyes) fish have swim bladders
  • Gas-gilled sac that gives fish buoyancy
  • What is buoyancy?
  • What can bony fish do because of the swim
    bladder?
  • Create an analogy with something you may use and
    a swim bladder

10
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11
Sea Ray - Chondrichthyes
Lamprey Jawless Fish
Catfish - Osteichthyes
Whale Shark - Chondrichthyes
12
Amphibians Basic Facts
  • Amphibian double life
  • Live in both water and land
  • Most larvae are fishlike adults are terrestrial
    carnivores
  • Larvae respire through skin/gills Adults use
    lungs
  • Descendants of ancestral organisms that evolved
    some, not all, adaptations for life on land
  • First appeared 360 million years ago
  • External fertilization
  • Closed circulatory system three chambered heart

13
The Life Cycle of a Frog
Section 30-3
Adult Frog
Adults are typically ready tobreed in about one
to two years.
Young Frog
Frog eggs are laid in water and undergo external
fertilization.
The eggs hatch into tadpoles a few days to
several weeks later.
Fertilized Eggs
Tadpoles
Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails
and gills, and become meat-eaters as they develop
into terrestrial adults.
14
Amphibians
Section 30-3
Amphibians
means
Double life
as
larvæ they live in
adults they live on
and have special adaptations such as
are
that allow for
that provide
that allow
are
15
Groups of Amphibians
  • Salamanders
  • Long bodies and tails
  • Adults are carnivorous
  • Usually live in moist woods
  • Frogs and Toads
  • Lack tails
  • Frogs have long legs and are usually tied to
    water
  • Toads have shorter legs and not as closely tied
    to water
  • Caecilians
  • Legless animals that burrow in moist soil
  • Have fishlike scales

16
Spotted Salamander
Poison Dart Frog
Fire Bellied Toad
Caecilian
17
Reptiles Basic Facts
  • All reptiles have
  • Dry, scaly skin helps prevent loss of body
    water in dry environments
  • Terestrial eggs first animals to develop
    amniotic eggs that didnt need to be deposited in
    water
  • Respire using lungs
  • Internal Fertilization Most are egg-laying
  • Ectotherms cannot internally regulate body
    temperature cannot live in cold climates
  • Behavior controls body temp. (swimming,
    burrowing, basking, etc.)
  • Closed circulatory system double loop
  • Heart two atria/one or two ventricles

18
Amniotic Eggs
  • Top- Embryo
  • Egg Shell
  • Chorion
  • Allantois
  • Yolk

19
Groups of Reptiles
  • Turtles
  • Shells
  • Beaks (no teeth)
  • Lizards and Snakes (Squamates)
  • Shed Skin
  • Jointed jaws/ skulls
  • Crocodilians
  • Large Snout- Big teeth
  • Powerful tail
  • Semi-aquatic
  • Tuataras
  • Only 2 species (New Zealand)- most have become
    extinct

20
Coral Snake
Sea Turtle
Galapagos Tortoise
Iguana
21
Nile Crocodile
North American Alligator
Tuatara
22
Birds Basic Facts
  • Nearly 10,000 modern bird species
  • Birds are closely related to reptiles (scales on
    legs)
  • Have outer covering made of feathers, two legs
    used for walking or perching, and forelimbs
    modified into wings
  • Feathers separate birds from all other animal
    species
  • Feathers provide insulation for warmth can
    generate on body heat
  • Hollow bones- lighter for flight
  • Beak/Bills adapted to type of food they eat
  • Highly efficient respiratory system lungs only
    exposed to Oxygen rich air
  • Internal fertilization amniotic eggs many mate
    for life

23
Bird Groups
  • Neorinthes (Modern birds) have 27 Orders of
    different bird groups (ex ducks, grouse,
    pigeons, pelicans, hawks, hummingbirds, owls,
    woodpeckers, and perching birds, etc.)

24
Bird adaptations
Section 31-2
Birds
have the followingadaptations to flight
which are
that also
that power
that provide
that ensure
25
Wings Feathers
26
Purple Finch
Stork
Red-Tailed Hawk
Emu
27
Mammals Basic Facts
  • First true mammals appeared 220 million years ago
  • Mammals flourished after dinosaurs became extinct
    65 million years ago
  • Basic characteristics
  • Hair
  • Mammary glands produce milk to nourish young
  • Breathe air
  • Four chambered heart
  • Endotherms can generate own body heat
  • Internal fertilization care for young

28
Mammal Groups
  • Monotremes
  • Lay eggs
  • Duck-billed platypus and anteater
  • Marsurpials
  • Birth live young and develop in a pouch
  • Kangaroos, koalas, opposums, etc.
  • Placentals
  • Young fully develop inside mother
  • Nourished by a placenta

29
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