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Ch. 50 ECOLOGY Organisms are open systems that interact continuously with their environments Ecology = the scientific study of the interactions between ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch. 50 ECOLOGY

  • Organisms are open systems that interact
    continuously with their environments
  • Ecology gt the scientific study of the
    interactions between organisms and their living
    and nonliving environments.
  • Resources are limited
  • Multidisciplinary field with lots of practical
  • Questions include
  • Distribution
  • Abundance
  • Where/ how do they live/ why are they there ?
    Factors that influence these

Scope of Ecology
  • Aristotle, Darwin, Ernst Mayr, EO Wilson, Aldo
    Leopold and Rachel Carson
  • Historically descriptive, currently much more
  • Data is important .much information is modeled
    due to extremely large scale.
  • Abiotic gt nonliving, chemical and physical
    factors such as temperature, light, minerals,
    wind, latitude and longitude
  • Biotic gt living components of the environment,
    such as food, resources, water, competition,
    prey, specific species
  • Many times biotic and abiotic factors overlap
    neighboring trees are competition and also
    provide shade.

Relationship to evolution
  • An important cause of evolution is an organisms
    interactions with its environment.
  • Lots of geologists at the same time as Darwin
  • Ecological timeframes may be in months or years.
    Eventually translates to evolutionary changes
  • Evolutionary changes are on a different time
    scale (geologic time millennia and eras)
  • Ex predator-prey interactions provide the force
    for genetic selection of a camouflaging color
  • Web like , wide variety of interactions

Levels of Ecology
  • Organismal Ecology morphology, physiology and
    behaviors of a species as they meet challenges of
    interacting with their environment
  • Population Ecology What factors affect a certain
    group (species) as they live in a particular area
  • Community Ecology interacting species
  • Ecosystem Ecology species plus all the abiotic
    factors in the ecosystem
  • Landscape Ecology how are ecosystems arranged in
    a particular geographic region.
  • Ecosystem community plus physical environment
  • Biosphere region of Earth where life is found,
    global ecosystem

Levels of organization
  • Individual
  • Species similar individuals that are
    genetically similar enough to reproduce and
    produce viable offspring.
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Biomes regions on the globe that are similar in
    climate and vegetation
  • Biosphere

Factors Affecting Distribution
  • Global and regional
  • Pangea (supercontinent)
  • Biogeography study of past and present
  • Dispersal
  • Think diffusion
  • potential range vs actual range
  • Dispersal behavior biotic factors abiotic
  • Transplants -
  • Introduced species
  • Invasive vs. exotic
  • 10s rule

Types of Dispersion
  • Random Clumped Even
  • individuals are individuals are
    individuals are
  • not in any type grouped together spaced
  • of pattern through ecosystem

Factors that impact dispersion
  • Behavior / habitat selection
  • Egg laying, host plant, prey, chemical signals,
  • Biotic factors
  • Predation, disease, competition, resources
  • Abiotic factors
  • Temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rock and soil
    ( pH, structure, minerals) , salinity
  • Temperature and water are major - climate

Variations in climate
  • Seasons
  • Microclines from top to bottom of lake or
    forest, from edge to interior of forest
  • Climate change long term shifts in the climate
    of a specific biome. ( glaciers )
  • climate change is more accepted (pc) than
    global warming
  • Will potential cause changes in distribution of
    species . Spread disease, alter crop production,
    change in weather patterns.