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Title: Biology:%20Exploring%20Life


1
Chapter 1
  • Biology Exploring Life

2
  • A Big-Billed Bird Rebounds
  • Some core themes underlie all of biology
    evolution, cells as the fundamental unit of life,
    a nearly universal genetic code, the relation of
    structure and function
  • The brown pelican is an example of the connection
    between organisms and their environment

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THE SCOPE OF BIOLOGY
  • 1.1 Lifes levels of organization define the
    scope of biology
  • These levels represent a hierarchy
  • Starting with the biosphere, each level is less
    inclusive than the one below it

5
  • Biosphere all the environments of Earth that
    support life
  • Ecosystem All the living and nonliving
    components of a particular environment
  • Community All the living organisms in an
    ecosystem
  • Population an interacting group of individuals
    of one species
  • Organism An individual living entity

6
  • The hierarchy continues downward with
  • Organ systems
  • Organs
  • Tissues
  • Cells
  • Organelles
  • Molecules
  • Atoms

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  • 1.2 Living organisms and their environments form
    interconnecting webs
  • Producers-photosynthetic organisms-use energy
    from the sun to produce food
  • Consumers are ultimately dependent on producers
    for food
  • Decomposers break down dead organic material,
    which is recycled

9
  • The dynamics of an ecosystem include two major
    processes
  • The cycling of chemical nutrients
  • The one-way flow of energy, entering as sunlight
    and leaving as heat

10
LE 1-2
Sun
Air
Inflow of light energy
Loss of heat energy
O2
CO2
CO2
Chemical energy
Cycling of chemical nutrients
Consumers
Producers
Decomposers
H2O
Soil
Ecosystem
11
  • 1.3 Cells are the structural and functional units
    of life
  • Cells perform all functions necessary for life
  • Regulate their internal environment
  • Take in and use energy
  • Respond to the local environment
  • Develop and maintain their complex organization
  • Divide to form new cells

12
  • Theme of emergent property
  • "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
  • The combination of the parts that form a more
    complex organization is called a system

13
  • Two basic types of cells prokaryotes and
    eukaryotes
  • Prokaryotes are smaller and less complex than
    eukaryotes and lack a nucleus and other
    organelles
  • Eukaryotes are generally larger and more complex
    and contain a nucleus and other organelles

14
LE 1-3
Nucleus (contains DNA)
Eukaryotic cell
Prokaryotic cell
DNA (no nucleus)
Organelles
25,000 ?
15
EVOLUTION, UNITY, AND DIVERSITY
  • 1.4 The unity of life All forms of life have
    common features
  • Genetic information within all cells is coded in
    DNA molecules
  • Each DNA molecule is made up of chains of four
    chemical "building blocks"

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  • Other common properties of organisms
  • Order
  • Regulation
  • Growth and development
  • Energy use
  • Response to the environment
  • Reproduction
  • Evolution

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  • 1.5 The diversity of life can be arranged into
    three domains
  • Scientists have identified about 1.8 million
    species-particular types of organisms
  • Taxonomy classifies species into a hierarchy of
    increasingly broad groups

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  • Three domains are the most overarching groups
  • Domain Bacteria, unicellular prokaryotes (cells
    that lack a nucleus)
  • Domain Archaea, unicellular prokaryotes
  • Domain Eukarya, unicellular and multicellular
    eukaryotes (cells with a nucleus), including
    protists, plants, animals, and fungi

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LE 1-5c
Kingdom Fungi
275?
Kingdom Animalia
Protists (multiple kingdoms)
Kingdom Plantae
26
  • 1.6 Evolution explains the unity and diversity of
    life
  • Charles Darwin proposed the theory of evolution
    by natural selection
  • Species evolved from ancestors through "descent
    with modification"
  • Natural selection occurs as heritable variations
    are exposed to environmental factors that favor
    the reproductive success of some individuals over
    others
  • The product of natural selection is adaptation

27
LE 1-6b
Population with varied inherited traits
Elimination of individuals with certain traits
Reproduction of survivors
28
THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE
  • 1.7 Scientists use two main approaches to learn
    about nature
  • Discovery science
  • Primarily describes nature through verifiable
    observations and measurements
  • Hypothesis-driven science
  • Attempts to explain nature by studying questions
    drawn from observations made during "discovery
    science"
  • Hypothesis a tentative answer to a problem or
    question that is being asked

29
  • 1.8 With hypothesis-based science, we pose and
    test hypotheses
  • Hypothesis-based science applies the five steps
    of the scientific method
  • (1) Observations from others or results of
    earlier tests
  • (2) Questions about unclear aspects of the
    observations How? Why? When?

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  • (3) Hypotheses or tentative explanations of a
    phenomenon
  • Must be testable
  • Must be falsifiable
  • (4) Predictions developed by the use of deductive
    reasoning (if...then)
  • (5) Tests of predictions to determine if the
    predictions are supported or falsified.

31
  • A Case Study from Everyday Life
  • Following the scientific method to discover why a
    flashlight doesn't work
  • Using deductive reasoning to test alternative
    hypotheses
  • If a hypothesis is correct, and we test it, then
    we can expect a particular outcome

32
LE 1-8a-1
Observations
Question
Hypothesis 1 Dead batteries
Hypothesis 2 Burnt-out bulb
33
LE 1-8a-2
Observations
Question
Hypothesis 1 Dead batteries
Hypothesis 2 Burnt-out bulb
Prediction Replacing bulb will fix problem
Prediction Replacing batteries will fix problem
34
LE 1-8a-3
Observations
Question
Hypothesis 1 Dead batteries
Hypothesis 2 Burnt-out bulb
Prediction Replacing batteries will fix problem
Prediction Replacing bulb will fix problem
Test prediction
Test prediction
Test falsifies hypothesis
Test does not falsify hypothesis
35
  • A Case Study of Hypothesis-Based Science
  • Following the scientific method to test an
    hypothesis about the function of biological
    mimicry
  • Predict that mimicry should protect coral snakes
    in the areas where king snakes live
  • Develop a controlled experiment using artificial
    snakes
  • Summarize results confirming prediction in a graph

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LE 1-8e
100
Artificial king snakes
84
83
80
Artificial brown snakes
60
Percent of total attacks on artificial snakes
40
20
17
16
0
Coral snakes absent
Coral snakes present
40
BIOLOGY AND EVERYDAY LIFE CONNECTION
  • 1.9 Biology is connected to our lives in many
    ways
  • Technology applies scientific knowledge for a
    specific purpose
  • Biology and technology affect our everyday lives
  • Environmental problems and solutions
  • Genetic engineering
  • Medicine

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