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Voyage within a Cell 14 min review

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Introduction to the Cell video (3 min) Chapter 7 Voyage within a Cell 14 min review Cell Action Harvard 3D animation History of Cells: video clip 1 video clip 2 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Voyage within a Cell 14 min review


1
Introduction to the Cell video (3 min)
  • Chapter 7
  • Voyage within a Cell 14 min review

2
History of Cells video clip 1 video clip 2
  • Discovery of cells made possible with the
    discovery of the microscope
  • Def smallest unit of matter that can carry on
    all the processes of life

3
Discovery of the Cell (made possible by the
discovery of scope
  • 1665 - Hooke - Discovered and named the cell
    observed cork called them tiny rooms
  • 1673 Leewenhoek - First to see living cells
    (microscopic organisms)

4
Discovery of the Cell
  • 1824 Dutrochet
  • - Plants and Animals are made of cells
  • 1831 - Brown
  • Discovered the nucleus
  • 1835 - Dujardin
  • Discovered protoplasm
  • 1838 - Schleiden (botanist)
  • Hypothesized all plants were made of cells

5
Discovery of the Cell
  • 1839 - Schwann (zoologist)
  • Hypothesized all animals are made of cells
  • 1855 - Virchow
  • All cells come from other cells
  • Discovered that the nucleus controls the cell

6
Cell Theory
  • 1. All living things are composed of cells
  • 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and
    function in all living things
  • organelles Cell Tissue
    Organs
  • Organ System Organism
  • 3. Cells come from reproduction of existing
    cells

7
Types of Cells
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular and unicellular
  • Nucleus present
  • Membrane bound organelles
  • Ex animals, plants, fungus, algae
  • Prokaryotic
  • Unicellular
  • No nucleus
  • No membrane
  • bound organelles
  • Most numerous of
  • living things
  • Ex bacteria, protista

8
Cell Shape
  • The shape of the cell (form) reflects its
    function.
  • Ex Nerve cell are long strands for sending
    chemical messages throughout the body.
  • Ex Blood cells are circular and pliable to get
    through the blood vessels.

9
Cell Shape- Skin Deep
  • Skin Deep

10
Cell Size
  • 10-50 um (micrometers)
  • Limited by its surface area to volume ratio

11
Lipid bilayer
  • Contain a phosphate head that is polar and
    soluble in water
  • Has a fatty acid tail that is nonpolar and
    insoluble in water

12
Parts of the Cell
  • Cell (Plasma) Membrane
  • Semipermeable - keeps some molecules out, but
    lets others through (controls what enters and
    leaves cell
  • Made of a lipid bilayer
  • Has protein channels that aid with the movement
    of nutrients, water, oxygen into the cell and
    waste and CO2 out of the cell
  • Have carbohydrate chains which are chemical
    recognition sites and interact with each other

13
Fluid Mosaic Model
  • Fluid Membrane bilayer acts as liquid (lipids
    and proteins move within bilayer)
  • Mosaic made of several different components
  • Exs nuclei, vacuoles, mitochondria, and
    chloroplast

14
Cytoplasm
  • contains water and salts
  • between cell membrane and the nucleus
  • Site of chemical reactions

15
Nucleus and Nucleolus
  • Nucleus directs all activity of the cell such as
    cell growth, protein synthesis, cell division
  • Nucleolus is a dark dot in the nucleus makes
    ribosomes and stores proteins and RNA

16
Nuclear Envelope or Nuclear Membrane
  • Double membrane where substances enter and leave
    through pores (nuclear pores)

17
Cell Wall
  • Located outside cell membrane, has pores
  • Supports and protects plant
  • Made of cellulose
  • Nonliving
  • Plants, fungus, bacteria

18
Vacuole
  • Large fluid filled membranous sac
  • Stores , enzymes, metabolic wastes
  • Pressure of water keeps plants from wilting

19
Plastids
  • Have 2 membranes
  • Function- store energy in sugar molecule bonds
  • Types

20
Plastids (plants only)
  • Chromoplast
  • Pigments for red, orange, and yellow color fruit,
    flowers, leaves
  • Chloroplasts
  • Contain chlorophyll (green) trap sunlight for
    photosynthesis

21
Leucoplast
  • Found in plants
  • Colorless
  • Starch storage

22
Ribosomes
  • Make proteins and enzymes
  • Found free floating in the cytoplasm and attached
    to the endoplasmic reticulum
  • Has no membrane
  • In Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells

23
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • FUNCTIONS
  • Makes protein and enzymes
  • makes steroids (gland cells)
  • regulates calcium levels in muscle
  • breaks down toxic substances in
  • the liver
  • Rough ER - has ribosomes
  • Smooth ER - has NO ribosomes
  • stores what the RER makes

24
Golgi Apparatus/Golgi Complex
  • Add lipids or carbohydrates to proteins made by
    rough ER and ribosomes
  • Golgi then package the finished proteins and
    transports them for export

25
Lysosomes
  • Small sacs of powerful digestive enzymes which
    cleans up cellular wastes by dissolving them
  • Made by golgi

26
Centrioles
  • Rod shape structure
  • Used during mitosis and is responsible for
    spindle formation and movement
  • Animals only
  • Made of microtubules

27
Cytoskeleton
  • Called microtubules
  • Hollow tubes that support cells and move cells
  • Maintains shape and size of cell
  • Microfilaments protein fibers used to move
    organelles and used in muscle contractions

28
Cilia/Flagella
  • Hair like organelle for movement
  • Cilia-many and short
  • Flagella-few and long -tail like
  • Made of microtubules

29
Flagella and Cilia Movement
30
Mitochondria
  • Provide energy for the cell by converting glucose
    and oxygen into A.T.P.(energy molecule)
  • Called the powerhouse of the cell
  • Cristae increases surface area for chemical
    reactions

31
Chromatin
  • Fine strands
  • Combination of DNA and protein
  • Located in nucleus
  • When tightly packed they are called chromosomes
  • Stores heredity info

32
Differences Between Plants and Animals
  • Animals have centrioles, many small vacuoles,
  • Plants have cell walls, large central vacuole,
    and chloroplasts

33
(No Transcript)
34
Cell Action
  • Harvard 3D animation
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