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Science, Technology, Innovation and Wealth Creation: Skills and Capacity Building for Developing Countries

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Science, Technology, Innovation and Wealth Creation: Skills and Capacity Building for Developing Countries Sir David King Chief Scientific Adviser to UK Government – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Science, Technology, Innovation and Wealth Creation: Skills and Capacity Building for Developing Countries


1
Science, Technology, Innovation and Wealth
Creation Skills and Capacity Building for
Developing Countries
  • Sir David King
  • Chief Scientific Adviser to UK Government
  • World Bank
  • 11 July 2007

2
Indonesian Tsunami, 26 December 2004
Before After
3
The FMD story 2001
4
21st Century Challenges
  • Population
  • Water
  • Food
  • Energy
  • Health
  • Environment
  • Terrorism/Conflict
  • Climate change
  • Biodiversity
  • Wellbeing
  • Sustainability

5
Variation of life expectancy around the world
6
Political Factors weak governance
Governance Quality in Developing Countries,
Measured by Country Policy and Institutional
Assessment (CPIA) scores, 1999-2005
3.8
3.7
3.60
1999
2005
3.49
3.5
3.40
3.40
3.39
3.3
3.22
3.20
3.19
Scale from 1 to 6
3.1
2.96
2.9
2.7
2.5
sub-Saharan Africa
East Asia Pacific
Latin America Carribean
Middle East North Africa
South Asia
7
Obstacles to African development
  • In the past have mainly been due to governance
    and geography manifest into a number of factors
  • Human - HIV and AIDS, malaria and TB, education
  • Political - weak governance, corruption, conflict
  • Environmental - agriculture, climate change
  • Science and technology weak in science,
    technology, medical, engineering, agricultural
    skills

8
Burden of disease
HIV Prevalence rate, 2006 ( of adult population)
Source UNAIDS and WHO, December 2006
9
Food
  • Imports vs Exports
  • Crops should be grown to create stocks and for
    export
  • GM research needed

10
World water deficit
Source NERC, CEH Wallingford
11
Population and Water
  • World Resource 12-14 million cubic metres
    available
  • 1989 9,000 cub metres per person
  • 2025 5,100 cub metres per person
  • Population distribution does not equal water
    supply distribution

12
Global fossil resources
Source BP
Source BP estimates
13
Solar Land Area Requirements
6 Boxes at 3.3 TW Each
Source Nathan Lewis
14
Basic Sanitation
Source SASI Group http//www.worldmapper.org/post
ers/worldmapper_map183_ver5.pdf
15
Net Official Aid, 2004EU contributors
of GDP
0.7
x
Rising to 0.7 of GDP by 2013
0.4
0.38
0.3
0.17
Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Sweden Belgium
Source OECD
16
The case for untying aid
  • Tied aid
  • Undermines national ownership
  • Weakens decision making
  • Bypasses local governance and accountability
    systems
  • OECD estimates that in 2002, tied aid reduced the
    actual value to Africa by 0.7 - 1.3 bn.

17
Better quality aid should
  • Be aligned to country policies and strategies for
    economic development
  • Make use of and support national systems
  • Be co-ordinated with other donors
  • Be provided predictably over the longer term
  • Be where good governance is good - unconditional

18
Sustainable Development
  • Each generation should leave at least as large a
    productive base for its successor as it inherited
    from its predecessor
  • Productive Base
  • Manufactured capital Social worth of
  • Human capital these assets
  • Natural/Environmental capital wealth of a
    nation
  • Institutions, cultural coordinates

Source Partha Dasgupta
19
Commission for Africa, 2004
20
Commission for Africa Report
  • A new kind of partnership based on mutual
    respect and solidarity.
  • Good governance
  • An additional 25bn a year in aid by 2010.
  • 100 debt cancellation for poorest
  • countries.
  • Untying aid

21
For capacity building
  • International Community should commit in
  • 2005
  • US 1billion for education
  • US 500 million a year over 10 years to
    revitalise Africas institutions of higher
    education.
  • US 3billion over 10 years to develop centres of
    excellence in ST.

22
Source Research Africa, 26 June 2007
23
Knowledge transfer and capacity building activity
will make significant contributions to
  • Human capital
  • Education provision skills development
  • Population growth containment
  • Infrastructure Development
  • Clean water, hospitals, schools, Police,
    government facilities, Transport on a
    trans-regional basis
  • Cultural Development
  • Attitudes to wealth creation
  • Encouraging entrepreneurial spirit
  • Respect for indigenous culture

24
Skills Holistic approach
  • Coordinate international programmes
  • Governmental and regional decision making in
    partnership
  • Need to go beyond basic education building up
    capabilities in primary, secondary and higher
    education
  • Well-developed approach to science, technology,
    engineering and medicine
  • Using centres of excellence to raise standards
    throughout the system

25
India an example of best practice
  • First PM, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru deep respect
    for ST
  • Sustained investment in schools, HE and ST
  • Development of Indian Institutes of Technology
    (IITs), initially funded by UK, USA, Russia
    Germany post 1947

IIT, Delhi
26

383ppm (2006)
Fedorov et al, Science 312 (2006) 1485
27
Impacts of temperature rise on robusta coffee in
Uganda
SourceUNEP/GRID-Arendal 1995, quoted in ODI 2007
28
Darfur
29
Wellbeing
  • Science and technology is vital for good
    governance, stability and human capital
  • Technically skilled population is a
    pre-requisite for
  • Economic and wealth sustainability and
  • Wellbeing
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