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Hazardous Materials Awareness

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Hazardous Materials Awareness Module 1: Preparing For Response – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hazardous Materials Awareness


1
Hazardous Materials Awareness
  • Module 1 Preparing For Response

2
Definitions
3
US Department of Transportation
  • Hazardous Materials were first defined nationally
    by USDOT in 1975 as a hazardous substance or
    material which has been determined, to be
    capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health,
    safety, and property when transported.

4
US Environmental Protection Agency Occupational
Safety and Health Administration
  • Hazardous substance or material is defined by
    EPA, and OSHA as any substance that can produce
    an adverse effect on the health or safety of the
    persons exposed.

5
Simplified Definition
  • Any substance or material that when released from
    its container may hurt or harm the things it
    contacts.
  • Anything that jumps out at you.

6
Hazardous Materials Incident
  • Any release or potential release of a hazardous
    substance in an unplanned or unexpected manner.
  • Haz-Mat incidents are unique incidents. They
    require specialized protective measures not
    normally available to first responders AND they
    demand a different operational approach!
  • An emergency created by the release or potential
    release of a hazardous material.

7
(No Transcript)
8
Mechanisms of Harm
  • Hazardous materials incidents pose a multitude of
    health and safety concerns, any of which could
    result in serious injury or death.

9
Mechanism of Harm Cont
  • Thermal
  • Radiological
  • Asphyxiation
  • Chemical
  • Etiological
  • Mechanical

10
Mechanism of Harm also includes
Psychological
11
MECHANISMSOF HARM ONE AT A TIME
12
Thermal
  • Exposure to extremes in temperature.
  • Heat from fires or heat releasing chemical
    reactions.
  • Extremes in cold such as seen with liquified gas
    and cryogenic liquids.

13
Radiological
  • Exposure to materials which spontaneously emit
    ionizing radiation.
  • There are four nuclear power plants affecting 29
    Ohio counties with fallout possibilities.
  • Radioactive substances are also used in industry
    and medicine extensively.

14
Affected Counties in Ohio
This map shows the counties in Ohio affected by
the four nuclear plants.
  • Fermi
  • Davis Besse
  • Perry
  • Beaver Valley

15
Asphyxiation
  • Can be subdivided into two categories
  • Simple- oxygen deficient atmosphere which can be
    caused by displacement or consumption of ambient
    oxygen.
  • Chemical- many toxic substances cause
    pathological changes within the body by
    preventing the body from properly using oxygen.
    Example carbon monoxide.

EPA Action Guide - below 19.5 oxygen content
SCBA REQUIRED
16
Chemical
  • Toxic or destructive effects from exposure to
    chemicals.
  • Examples include
  • poisoning from pesticides
  • respiratory systems injury from materials like
    chlorine
  • corrosive damage from contact with acids and
    alkaline materials.

17
Etiological/Biological
  • Injury or harm cause by human disease causing
    agents.
  • Bacteria and viruses.
  • Many of these are used by terrorists.
  • This is the B in NBC
  • Knowledge of the existence of these types of
    agents will be limited.

18
Mechanical
  • Mechanical hazards are physical hazards which may
    be present at the incident.
  • Flying debris from explosions.
  • Trips and falls on uneven ground.
  • Excessive noise conditions resulting in hearing
    injury.
  • Punctures from nails and glass.
  • Impacts from falling debris.

19
Psychological
  • Mental harm caused by fear of the unknown or
    witnessing a violent death.
  • Mental harm to responders due to long periods on
    the line.
  • Anxiety due to long periods away from home.

20
Routes of Exposure
  • ROUTES OF EXPOSURE
  • ONE AT A TIME

21
Inhalation
  • Inhalation involves the breathing in of a
    substance, leading to direct contact with tissues
    in the respiratory tract
  • nose
  • throat
  • trachea
  • lungs

22
Ingestion
  • Ingestion is the swallowing of a substance,
    resulting in contact with the digestive tract
  • mouth
  • throat
  • esophagus
  • stomach
  • intestines

23
Absorption/Contact
  • Absorption/contact involves direct contact with
    skin.
  • Destruction and/or passage of material
    through the skin and eyes.

24
Injection
  • Injection is the entry of a substance through a
    break in the skin.
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