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Title: Georgia s Redemption Years Author: E200002949 Last modified by: James, Furga Created Date: 12/29/2007 1:31:00 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Target

  • African Americas, Native Americans, and women had
    almost no rights during many time periods. What
    are some of the reasons why the government might
    have prevented these groups from buying land,
    voting, starting a business, or signing a

Georgias Redemption Years
  • According to the World Book, redemption can mean
    buying back, paying off a debt, or a state of
    being rescued, or delivered from some great evil
  • How does Redemption fit Georgia after the
    Reconstruction Period?

What played an important part in the rebirth of
Atlanta after the Civil War?
  • A City Rises from the Ashes
  • Atlanta was burned by Northern Troops
  • By 1861, Atlanta was 4th largest city
  • During the 1860s center for communication and
  • By 2000 there is more than 4 million population
    in Atlanta
  • Atlanta is state capital in 1868

The Bourbon Triumvirate
  • Three Democrats that tried to help Georgia
    rebuild after Reconstruction
  • Wanted stronger economic ties with the industrial
  • Wanted to protect White Supremacy
  • Active in Georgia Politics from 1862-1890
  • Influenced Georgia Politics well into the 20th
  • Bourbon a line of kings from France who ruled
    for over 200 years
  • Triumvirate a ruling body of three

Joseph E. Brown
  • The oldest member of the triumvirate
  • Born in South Carolina, grew up in Union County
  • Graduated from Yale Law School
  • State Senator, Blue Ridge Judicial Circuit Judge
  • Georgia Governor in 1857 (served 3 terms)
  • Asked Georgians to go along with Radical
  • Chief Justice of Georgia Supreme Court
  • Worked for company that leased Western and
    Atlantic Railroad
  • US Senator until 1891, when Gordon resigned(1880)
  • Trustee for University of Georgia
  • President of Atlanta Board of Education

Alfred H. Colquitt
  • Born in Walton County, son of US Senator
    (Colquitt County is named for his father)
  • Princeton University
  • Fought in the Mexican War
  • State Senator with Brown in 1849, became a close
    friend with Brown
  • Major General in Civil War
  • Elected Governor in 1876
  • He was tried for corruption, but found innocent
  • Reduced state debt and a new state constitution
    was approved 1877, the next one would be 1945
  • Served in the US Senate1883 and 1888, died 1894

John B. Gordon
  • Son of a minister, born in Upson County
  • Attended the University of Georgia
  • Worked as a newspaper correspondent
  • Manager of a coal mine in Dade County at
    beginning of Civil War
  • Lt. General in Civil War, wrote a book about it
  • In 1872, he became a US Senator
  • In 1880, he resigned the senate and worked with
  • In 1886, he became Georgia Governor
  • Reduced debt and brought industry into the state
  • Returned to US Senate in 1891-1897
  • Gordon College in Barnesville, is named after him.

5Ws and H
  • Create a chart using the following words, who,
    what, when, where, why, and how to describe the
    following terms Bourbon Triumvirate, Joseph
    Brown, Alfred Colquitt, and John B. Gordon

Quick check of Understanding
Bourbon Triumvirate Joseph Brown Alfred Colquitt John B. Brown

Which man has a statue at the state capital?
The only statue there of a man on horseback
Joseph E. Brown
Alfred H. Colquitt
What happened to cause the decline of the Bourbon
John B. Gordon
The Decline of the B. T.
  • Not all Georgians were satisfied with the
    accomplishments of the Bourbon Triumvirate and
    other Democrats who sought to reconstruct the
    economy of the south
  • They did not help the poor, or education, no
    reforms for factory working conditions, or
    improvements in mental hospitals
  • Not only did they not improve the lives of
    convicts (prisoners) in the state, most profited
    personally from their labors.

  • The Feltons Challenge the Bourbons
  • New Group Independent Democrats
  • Started in Cartersville, GA
  • Leaders were William and Rebecca Latimer Felton
    William was a doctor, Methodist preacher, farmer,
    and public speaker.
  • Their family owned The Carterville Courant, a
  • Rebecca was a leader in Womens Suffrage and
    Temperance Movements
  • In 1889, Hoke Smith asked her to be a columnist
    for the Atlanta Journal.
  • She remained with the Journal for 41 years.

The Convict Lease System
  • During the Civil War prisons were destroyed
  • After the War, lack of jobs led to crime
  • What was the state to do with increase of prison
    population? (90 were black)
  • One solution was the Convict Lease System
  • Began in 1866
  • Prisoners were leased to people who provide them
    with food, clothing, and housing in exchange for
  • Began with the use of prisoners to do public work

By 1879
  • Injustices began to show in the Convict Lease
  • Most of the prisoners went to three main
    companies, 2 owned by Brown and Gordon
  • Companies agreed to pay the state 25,000 in
    return for the use of however many prisoners they
    could get
  • They were to give the prisoners housing,
    clothing, medicine, rest on Sundays
  • The companies ignored the rights of the prisoners
    and in some cases worked them to death

In the 1880s
  • Legislative committees met to study the problem
    of prisoners
  • Not only were prisoners hurt, but paid laborers
    who were already poor, were not able to find work
    because the prisoners took all the jobs.
  • The Feltons worked tirelessly to change the laws
  • The Convict Lease System was changed in 1897

The Populists Movement
  • Dr. and Mrs. Felton pushed for
  • Improvements in Education
  • Improvements in Prison reform
  • Limits on alcohol traffic

The New South
  • Henry W. Grady
  • Born in Athens in 1850.
  • Graduated from UGA
  • In 1880, he became the managing editor of the
    Atlanta Constitution.
  • Henry W. Grady
  • In 1874, Grady wrote for the Atlanta Daily Herald
  • He described the need for a New South

Henry W. Grady, the Souths Best Salesman
  • Grady visited northern cities and spoke
    frequently about the New South
  • Spoke of the growing southern economy, replacing
    agriculture with industry, textile mills, coal
    and iron mining, and tobacco factories
  • He wanted the African Americans to become
    partners in developing the NEW SOUTH

Grady died of Pneumonia at the age of 39. He
accomplished much in his short life.
Education in the New South Era Outline
  • The Three-Month School Year, met two important
  • Enabled students to get a public school education
  • Enabled them to hold jobs in factories/mills
  • Different times and places in each community

Education in the New South Era
  • Teacher Training late 1800s
  • People who wanted to teach took a test (70,
  • Most had never been to college
  • In 1882, 252 teachers went to school in Georgia

Education in the New South Era
Education Takes a Giant Step Backward a. In
1877, limited to elementary education b.
Segregated schools, until 1960s c. African
Americans were left to be schooled in substandard
schools with second hand supplies
Tom Watson
  • Georgias best known Populist
  • Concerned about Georgias poor and struggling
  • Served in US Congress in 1890, Democrat
  • 1891, switched to Populist Party
  • Introduced the RFD bill, which gave farmers free
    mail service
  • He began two magazines in Georgia to influence

1906 Race Riot
  • Blamed on several sources
  • Saturday, September 22, local newspapers carried
    false reports of black assaulting whites
  • By 9 pm, over 5,000 whites and blacks gathered on
    Decatur Street
  • Rumors of whites with guns caused fear to grow
  • Reality struck, the riots lasted for two days,
    Martial Law was declared to stop the violence 21
    people were killed, 18 black, hundreds were

A French Newspaper reported on the Race Riots in
The Trial of Leo Frank
  • Frank, born in NY, was superintendent of the
    National Pencil Company factory in Atlanta
  • Charged with the murder of Mary Phagan, a 14 yr.
    old employee
  • He was tried and convicted and sentenced to
  • Proof was just from one witness who was also a
  • Frank was Jewish, and many people did not like
    his religious beliefs.
  • His lawyers appealed to the state supreme court.
  • The governor, Slaton, changed his sentence from
    death to life in prison
  • The change in his sentence angered KKK members
  • 25 armed Klan members went to his prison sale,
    took him and hanged him

The Klan is Reborn
In July, 1915, due to the anti-Jewish feelings
following the Leo Frank case, the KKK received a
charter from the Fulton County Superior Court. On
Thanksgiving night 1915, Atlanta preacher and
salesman William Simmons and 34 others climbed to
the top of Stone Mountain and lit torches as they
circled a burning cross. They called their group
the Knights of Mary Phagan. Thus they were
reborn in Georgia, and in other states.
County Unit System 1917 Neill Primary Act
  • What is it?
  • What did those who oppose it think?
  • What did those who supported it think?
  • How long was it in effect in Georgia?
  • Why did it end?

County Unit System 1917 Neill Primary Act
  • What is it?
  • A method of counting votes for each county as a
  • The 8 most populated counties had 6 county unit
    votes each (total 48 votes)
  • The next 30 had 4 votes each (120 votes)
  • The remaining 121 counties had 2 votes each (242
  • The most populated areas were not represented

County Unit System 1917 Neill Primary Act
  • What did those who oppose it think?
  • Men who were elected to office without a majority
    of the states popular vote did not represent the
    people of Georgia

County Unit System 1917 Neill Primary Act
  • What did those who supported it think?
  • This system allows small, less-populated counties
    to have the same power and influence as large
  • How long was it in effect in Georgia?
  • Until 1962
  • Why did it end?
  • It was declared UNCONSTITUTIONAL

Denial of Civil Rights
  • Jim Crow Laws - established separate facilities
    for blacks and whites
  • Restrooms, water fountains, dining areas,
    railroad cars, waiting rooms, hotels
  • Plessy V. Ferguson made segregation the law of
    the land until 1954
  • Gave states the right to control social
    discrimination and to promote segregation of the
  • Cummings V. Richmond County Bd. Of Education
    again the Supreme Court sided with Georgia
    against Black parents in Augusta

Denial of Civil Rights
  • Grandfather Clause a clause inserted in the
    Georgia Constitution in 1908 that stated only
    those men whose fathers or grandfathers had been
    eligible to vote in 1867 were eligible to vote
    it disenfranchised most of Georgias African
  • Poll Tax a tax to be able to vote, they also
    had to own property and be able to pass a
    literacy test. These tests were not standard and
    could be made up on the spot.

Booker T. Washington
  • Economic independence is the only road to social
    and political equality
  • He gave his most famous speech at the Cotton
    States and International Exposition
  • His speech was delivered to a racially mixed
  • His speech shaped race relations and strongly
    influenced black leadership for the next 20 years

  • A ship lost at sea for many days suddenly sighted
    a friendly vessel. From the mast of the
    unfortunate vessel was seen a signal, Water,
    water we die of thirst!
  • The answer from the friendly vessel at once came
    back, Cast down your bucket where you are. A
    second time the signal Water, water send us
    water! ran up from the distressed vessel, and
    was answered, Cast down your bucket where you
    are! A third and fourth signal for water was
    answered, Cast down your bucket where you are.
  • What does this mean?
  • Which Civil Right Leader of the 1950-60s also
    used this same idea in his speeches?
  • Do you think Washington was trying to help the
    blacks or the whites? Why?

Cotton States and International Exposition, 1895
This exposition was a way to showcase the
economic recovery of the south and to show
natural resources to attract Northern businesses
to the south.
W. E. B. Dubois, Professor of Economics, Atlanta
  • Did not agree with Washington
  • Truth and knowledge would help integrate the
  • Talented 10th would be educated and would
    lead and teach the other 90 of the African
    American population
  • He called Washington and his followers the
    Tuskegee Machine

John and Lugenia Hope
  • John Hope had more in common with Dubois, he was
    close friends with Dubois and they were both
    educators in the Atlanta University system
  • Hope was the President of Atlanta University
  • Hope brought all the African American Colleges
    together and formed the Atlanta University Center.
  • Mrs. Hope organized the Neighborhood Union which
    offered vocational training, health center, and
    boys and girls clubs.
  • Also gave financial aid

Alonzo Herndon
  • Born a slave on a Walton County Plantation
  • Learned to be a Barber
  • Opened a shop in Atlanta
  • Started to expand businesses as a white barber
  • Began buying property and ended up owning most of
    Auburn Avenue
  • In 1905, he bought a small insurance company and
    hired African American students to run the
  • It became the largest African American Owned
    company in the Nation at the time. Today it is
    still a leader worth over 200 million and does
    business in 17 states

Herndon died in 1927 Some of us sit and wait
for opportunity when it is always with us.
  • Famous Atlanta Department Store (now known as
  • Started in 1867, by Morris Rich
  • Known as a store with heart
  • took farmers produce in payment
  • took teachers scrip as money during the Great
  • Grew to be a regional shopping chain

  • Invented in Atlanta in 1885, by John S. Pemberton
    as tonic
  • Business purchased and expanded by Asa Candler
  • Sold company in 1919, for 25 million
  • Robert Woodruff grew company to billions of
    dollars in sales each year
  • Woodruff and Candler generous givers to worthy

Asa Chandler
(No Transcript)
In 1812, this political cartoon appeared in the
Boston Weekly Messenger depicting the odd shape
of a voting district created by Massachusetts
governor Elbridge Gerry to gain political
advantage for his party. The cartoonist called
it a Gerry-mander.