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GROUP BEHAVIOR

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GROUP BEHAVIOR How our behavior in groups differs from when we are alone. Social Facilitation Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others Occurs with ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GROUP BEHAVIOR


1
GROUP BEHAVIOR
  • How our behavior in groups differs from when we
    are alone.

2
Social Facilitation
  • Improved performance of tasks in the presence of
    others
  • Occurs with simple or well learned tasks
  • Tasks that are difficult or not yet learned the
    presence of other people is likely to hinder
    performance
  • Evaluation Apprehension concern about the
    opinion of others may motivate us to try harder.
  • Social Facilitation is even seen in other animals
    (dogs, cats, cockroaches)

3
Social Loafing
  • Social Loafingtendency to expend less effort
    (slack off) on a task when it is a group effort
  • The larger the group, the the lower each
    individuals output
  • Diffusion of Responsibility - People may be less
    accountable in a group, or they may think their
    efforts arent needed.
  • Reduced when
  • Group is composed of people we know
  • We are members of a highly valued group
  • Task is meaningful
  • Women are generally less likely to engage in
    social loafing than are men.
  • Opposite occurs in many collectivistic cultures,
    in a pattern referred to as social striving

4
Risky Shift
  • Tendency for people to take greater risks as a
    part of a group than they would on their own.
  • This is most likely because of deindividuation
    that occurs.

5
Deindividuation
  • The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint
    occurring in group situations that foster arousal
    and anonymity
  • People lose their sense of responsibility when in
    a group.

6
How Do Groups Make Decisions?
7
Social Decision Schemes Rules that govern group
decision making
  • Majority-Wins Scheme Applied to situations with
    no right or wrong answer. Most votes wins.
  • Truth-Wins Scheme learn more about the
    different choices and choose the one that is
    best.
  • Two-Thirds-Majority Scheme If 2/3 of the group
    agrees to a decision the final 1/3 will often
    follow.
  • First-Shift Scheme When the group is deadlocked
    50-50 on a decision once one person changes sides
    others will soon follow.

8
Groupthink
  • The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire
    for harmony in a decision- making group overrides
    a realistic appraisal of the alternatives
  • Group members try to maintain harmony and
    unanimity in group
  • Can lead to some better decisions and some worse
    decisions than individuals

9
Group Interaction Effects
10
Group Polarization
  • The strengthening of a groups prevailing
    attitudes through discussion within the group

11
Social Pressure in Group Decisions
  • Group polarization
  • majority position stronger after a group
    discussion in which a minority is arguing against
    the majority point of view
  • Why does this occur?
  • informational and normative influences

12
Group Polarization
13
Group Leadership
14
Types of Leaders
  • Authoritarian Absolute control over all
    decisions (a dictator)
  • Democratic Encourage group members to express
    and discuss their ideas, build a consensus or
    take majoritys view.
  • Laissez-Faire Lets group make decisions whether
    they are right or wrong.
  • Best type of leaders depends on the situation
    (how fast and important is the decision that
    needs to be made)
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