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The Foundations of

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Title: The Foundations of


1
Chapter 17
The Foundations of Christian Society in Western
Europe
2
The Germanic Successor States, c. 500 AD
  • Last Roman emperor deposed by Germanic Odoacer,
    476 AD
  • Administrative apparatus still in place, but
    cities lose population
  • Germanic successor states
  • Spain Visigoths
  • Italy Ostrogoths
  • Gaul Burgundians, Franks
  • Britian Angles, Saxons

3
  • Successor States to the Roman Empire c. 500

4
The Frankish Empire
  • In the territory known as Gaul, and what is
    currently the country of France, the Franks
    emerged as the dominant tribe in the area.
  • In the late 400s, Clovis was the first king of
    the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under
    one ruler. His conversion to Christianity gained
    him a great ally in the Roman Catholic Church.

5
The Franks
  • Heavy influence on European development
  • Strong agricultural base
  • Shifts center of economic gravity to Europe
  • Firm alliance with western Christian church

6
Clovis (ruled 481-511)
  • Major Frankish leader
  • Destroyed last vestiges of Roman rule in Gaul
  • Dominated other Germanic peoples
  • Franks establish themselves as preeminent
    Germanic people

7
Clovis Conversion to Christianity
  • Paganism, Arian Christianity popular among Franks
  • Clovis and army chooses Roman Catholicism
  • Influence of wife Clotilda
  • Political implications
  • Alliance with western church

8
The Carolingians
  • Charles The Hammer Martel begins Carolingian
    dynasty
  • Defeats Spanish Muslims at Battle of Tours (732)
  • Halts Islamic advance into western Europe

9
  • Charles de Steuben's Bataille de Poitiers en
    Octobre 732 depicts a triumphant Charles Martel
    (mounted) facing Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (right)
    at the Battle of Tours.

10
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11
  • The Carolingian Empire

12
Charlemagne (r. 768-814)
  • Grandson of Charles Martel
  • Centralized imperial rule
  • Functional illiterate, but sponsored extensive
    scholarship
  • Major military achievements

13
Charlemagnes Empire
14
Charlemagnes Administration
  • Capital at Aachen, Germany
  • Yet constant travel throughout empire
  • Spread Christianity
  • Set Up Education System
  • Increased Scriptoriums
  • Alcuin, the leading scholar and educator under
    Charlemagne introduced the 7 liberal arts
  • Begins Romanesque Architecture
  • Expansion of Territory
  • Imperial officials missi dominici (envoys of
    the lord ruler)
  • Continued yearly circuit travel

15
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16
Romanesque church in Normandy
17
Charlemagne as Emperor
  • Hesitated to challenge Byzantines by taking title
    emperor
  • Yet ruled in fact
  • Pope Leo III crowns him as emperor in 800
  • Planned in advance?
  • Challenge to Byzantium

18
Pope Crowned CharlemagneHoly Roman Emperor Dec.
25, 800
19
The Carolingian Renaissance
20
Carolingian Miniscule
21
Louis the Pious (r. 814-840)
  • Son of Charlemagne
  • Lost control of courts, local authorities
  • Civil war erupts between three sons
  • Empire divided in 843

Charlemagne crowns Louis the Pious
22
Charlemagnes Empire CollapsesTreaty of Verdun,
843
23
Invasions
  • South Muslims
  • East Magyars
  • North Vikings
  • Norse expansion begins c. 800 AD
  • Driven by population pressure, hostility to
    spread of Christianity
  • Superior seafaring technology
  • Sailed to eastern Canada, northeastern US

24
  • The dissolution of the Carolingian Empire (843
    AD divided amongst Charlemagnes grandchildren)
    and the invasions of early medieval Europe in the
    ninth and tenth centuries

25
The Vikings
  • From village of Vik, Norway (hence Viking)
  • Boats with shallow drafts, capable of river
    travel as well as open seas
  • Attacked villages, cities from 9th century
  • Constantinople sacked three times
  • Carolingians had no navy, dependent on local
    defenses

26
England
  • Viking invasions force consolidation of Angles,
    Saxons and other Germanic peoples under King
    Alfred (r. 871-899)
  • Built navy
  • Fortified cities against attack

27
Germany and France
  • King Otto of Saxony (r. 936-973) defeats Magyars,
    955
  • Proclaimed emperor by Pope in 962
  • Establishment of Holy Roman Empire
  • France endures heavy Viking settlement
  • Loss of local autonomy

28
Early Medieval Society
  • Concept of Feudalism
  • Lords and vassals
  • Increasingly inadequate model for describing
    complex society
  • Ad hoc arrangements in absence of strong central
    authorities

29
Feudalism
A political, economic, and social system based on
loyalty and military service.
30
Organizing in a Decentralized Society
  • Local nobles take over administration from weak
    central government
  • Nominal allegiances, esp. to Carolingian kings
  • But increasing independence

31
Lords and Retainers
  • Formation of small private armies
  • Incentives land grants, income from mills, cash
    payments
  • Formation of hereditary class of military
    retainers
  • Development of other functions
  • Justice, social welfare

32
Potential for Instability
  • Complex interrelationship of lord-retainer
    relations
  • Rebellion always a possibility
  • Nevertheless, viable large states developed
    (Germany, France, England)

33
Origins of Serfdom
  • Slaves, free peasants in both Roman and Germanic
    societies
  • Heavy intermarriage
  • Appeals to lords, special relationships
  • Mid-7th century recognition of serf class
  • Midway between slave and free peasant

34
Serfs Rights and Obligations
  • Right to pass on land to heirs
  • Obligation to provide labor, payments in kind to
    lord
  • Unable to move from land
  • Fees charged for marrying serfs of another lord

35
Manors
  • Large, diverse estates
  • Lord provides governance, police, justice
    services
  • Serfs provide labor, income

36
The Medieval Manor
37
Life on the Medieval Manor
Serfs at work
38
Women in the Middle Ages
  • Noblewomen were responsible for the entire
    running of an estate while her husband was in
    battle.
  • All women had very limited inheritance rights, as
    all possessions went to the oldest son.
  • In the Middle Ages, the Church portrayed women as
    weak and easily tempted into sin. Yet, women
    were also portrayed as modest and pure in spirit.
  • Learning was generally discouraged for women.

39
The Economy of Early Medieval Europe
  • Agricultural center moves north from
    Mediterranean
  • 8th century iron-tipped plow introduced in Europe
  • Draft animals bred
  • Water mill technology
  • Agricultural output insufficient to support
    growth of cities
  • Strong Mediterranean trade despite Muslim
    domination of sea

40
Norse Merchant Mariners
  • Commerce or plunder as convenient
  • Link with the Islamic world for trade

41
Population Growth of Europe, 200-1000 AD
42
The Formation of Christian Europe
  • Clovis conversion forms strong alliance with
    Roman Christianity
  • Church supplies Clovis with class of literate
    information workers
  • Scribes
  • secretaries

43
The Franks and the Church
  • Protectors of the Papacy
  • Charlemagne destroys Lombards, who threatened
    Pope, Rome
  • Spreads Christianity in northern areas
  • Support of scholarship, scribal activity

44
The Spread of Christianity
  • Charlemagne fights pagan Saxons (772-804)
  • Saxons later adopt Christianity
  • Scandinavia, other pockets of paganism until c.
    1000 AD

45
Pope Gregory I (590-604 AD)
  • Gregory the Great
  • Asserted papal primacy
  • Prominent theologian
  • Sacrament of penance
  • Major missionary activity, especially in England

46
Monasticism
  • Egyptian origins, 2nd-3rd centuries
  • Monastic lifestyle expands 4th century
  • Large variety of monastic rules
  • Range from extremely ascetic to very lax

47
St. Benedict (480-547)
  • Established consistent rule for monasteries
  • Poverty
  • Chastity
  • Obedience
  • St. Scholastica (482-543)
  • Sister of St. Benedict
  • Adapts Benedictine Rule for convents

48
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49
Pope Gregory I, by Francisco de Zurbarán
50
Monasticism and Society
  • Accumulation of large landholdings, serfs
  • Social welfare projects
  • Esp. labor contributions
  • Expansion of literacy
  • Inns, orphanages, hospitals

51
The Power of the Medieval Church
  • The church controlled about 1/3 of the land
    in Western Europe.
  • Tithe ? 1/10 tax on your assets given to the
    church.
  • Threat of excommunication and an inderdict gave
    the church tremendous control over European
    peasants and nobles.
  • The selling of indulgences, canon law and
    simony also fortified the churchs power, but
    led many to recognize these acts as corrupt.

52
Church Secular Influence Pope Innocent III
  • The Church claimed authority over all secular
    rulers, many of whom did not recognize this
    authority, often resulting in power struggles
    between monarchs and popes.
  • When King John of England challenged Pope
    Innocent III over the appointment of an
    archbishop, he was excommunicated in 1209.

53
Magna Carta, 1215
  • King John I
  • Great Charter
  • Monarchs were not above the law.
  • Kings had to consult a council of
    advisors.
  • Kings could not tax arbitrarily.

54
The Medieval Church
  • Reform
  • Church wealth influence
  • Some clergy corrupted
  • Reformers
  • Nuns Monks
  • Set up housing, hospitals, schools
  • Missionaries Preservation of learning
  • Everyday Life
  • Christians attend village churches
  • Priests run village churches
  • All Christians pay tithe
  • Power of the Church
  • Pope leads
  • Canon Law
  • Excommunication/ interdict
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