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The Foundations of

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Title: The Foundations of


1
Chapter 17
The Foundations of Christian Society in Western
Europe
2
Foundation of Feudal Europe
  • Hard-won political order based on
    highly-decentralized but flexible system that
    vested political, military, judicial authority
    in local regional rulers
  • Long, slow process of economic recovery
    manorial system followed by increased trade,
    industry, commerce, reurbanization
  • Cultural unity the Church papacy monastic
    movement

3
The Quest for Political OrderThe Germanic
Successor States, c. 500 CE
  • Last Roman emperor deposed by Germanic Odoacer,
    476 CE
  • Administrative apparatus still in place, but
    cities lose population
  • Germanic successor states
  • Spain Visigoths
  • Italy Ostrogoths
  • Gaul Burgundians, Franks
  • Britian Angles, Saxons

4
  • Successor States to the Roman Empire c. 500

5
The Frankish Empire
  • In the territory known as Gaul, and what is
    currently the country of France, the Franks
    emerged as the dominant tribe in the area.
  • In the late 400s, Clovis was the first king of
    the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under
    one ruler. His conversion to Christianity gained
    him a great ally in the Roman Catholic Church.

6
The Franks
  • Heavy influence on European development
  • Strong agricultural base
  • Shifts center of economic gravity to Europe
  • Firm alliance with western Christian church

7
Essential Question
  • What is the significance of Cloviss conversion
    to Christianity?

8
Clovis (ruled 481-511)
  • Major Frankish leader
  • Destroyed last vestiges of Roman rule in Gaul
  • Dominated other Germanic peoples
  • Franks establish themselves as preeminent
    Germanic people

9
Clovis Conversion to Christianity
  • Paganism, Arian Christianity popular among Franks
  • Clovis and army chooses Roman Catholicism
  • Influence of wife Clotilda
  • Political implications
  • Alliance with western church

10
The Carolingians
  • Charles The Hammer Martel begins Carolingian
    dynasty
  • Defeats Spanish Muslims at Battle of Tours (732)
  • Halts Islamic advance into western Europe

11
  • Charles de Steuben's Bataille de Poitiers en
    Octobre 732 depicts a triumphant Charles Martel
    (mounted) facing Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (right)
    at the Battle of Tours.

12
(No Transcript)
13
  • The Carolingian Empire

14
Essential Questions
  • What were the contributions of Charlemagnes
    reign?
  • Why did it ultimately fail to last very long?

15
Charlemagne (r. 768-814)
  • Grandson of Charles Martel
  • Centralized imperial rule
  • Functional illiterate, but sponsored extensive
    scholarship
  • Major military achievements

16
Charlemagnes Empire
17
Charlemagnes Administration
  • Capital at Aachen, Germany
  • Yet constant travel throughout empire
  • Spread Christianity
  • Set Up Education System
  • Increased Scriptoriums
  • Alcuin, the leading scholar and educator under
    Charlemagne introduced the 7 liberal arts
  • Begins Romanesque Architecture
  • Expansion of Territory
  • Imperial officials missi dominici (envoys of
    the lord ruler)
  • Continued yearly circuit travel

18
Romanesque church in Normandy
19
Charlemagne as Emperor
  • Hesitated to challenge Byzantines by taking title
    emperor
  • Yet ruled in fact
  • Pope Leo III crowns him as emperor in 800
  • Planned in advance?
  • Challenge to Byzantium

20
Pope Crowned CharlemagneHoly Roman Emperor Dec.
25, 800
21
The Carolingian Renaissance
22
Carolingian Miniscule
23
Louis the Pious (r. 814-840)
  • Son of Charlemagne
  • Lost control of courts, local authorities
  • Civil war erupts between three sons
  • Empire divided in 843

Charlemagne crowns Louis the Pious
24
Charlemagnes Empire CollapsesTreaty of Verdun,
843
25
Invasions
  • South Muslims
  • East Magyars
  • North Vikings
  • Norse expansion begins c. 800 CE
  • Driven by population pressure, hostility to
    spread of Christianity
  • Superior seafaring technology
  • Sailed to eastern Canada, northeastern US

26
  • The dissolution of the Carolingian Empire (843 CE
    divided amongst Charlemagnes grandchildren)
    and the invasions of early medieval Europe in the
    ninth and tenth centuries

27
Essential Questions
  • Who were the Vikings?
  • What were the motivations behind their behavior?
  • What were their accomplishments?
  • How did they disrupt European society?

28
The Vikings
  • From village of Vik, Norway (hence Viking)
  • Boats with shallow drafts, capable of river
    travel as well as open seas
  • Attacked villages, cities from 9th century
  • Constantinople sacked three times
  • Carolingians had no navy, dependent on local
    defenses

29
England
  • Viking invasions force consolidation of Angles,
    Saxons and other Germanic peoples under King
    Alfred (r. 871-899)
  • Built navy
  • Fortified cities against attack

30
Germany and France
  • King Otto of Saxony (r. 936-973) defeats Magyars,
    955
  • Proclaimed emperor by Pope in 962
  • Establishment of Holy Roman Empire
  • France endures heavy Viking settlement
  • Loss of local autonomy

31
Essential Questions?
  • What were the obligations of lords toward their
    retainers and the retainers toward their lords?
  • Why was this arrangement often unstable?

32
Early Medieval Society
  • Concept of Feudalism
  • Lords and vassals
  • Increasingly inadequate model for describing
    complex society
  • Ad hoc arrangements in absence of strong central
    authorities

33
Feudalism
A political, economic, and social system based on
loyalty and military service.
34
Organizing in a Decentralized Society
  • Local nobles take over administration from weak
    central government
  • Nominal allegiances, esp. to Carolingian kings
  • But increasing independence

35
Lords and Retainers
  • Formation of small private armies
  • Incentives land grants, income from mills, cash
    payments
  • Formation of hereditary class of military
    retainers
  • Development of other functions
  • Justice, social welfare

36
Potential for Instability
  • Complex interrelationship of lord-retainer
    relations
  • Rebellion always a possibility
  • Nevertheless, viable large states developed
    (Germany, France, England)

37
Essential Question
  • What role did the serfs play in early medieval
    Europe?
  • What was life like on the manor?

38
Origins of Serfdom
  • Slaves, free peasants in both Roman and Germanic
    societies
  • Heavy intermarriage
  • Appeals to lords, special relationships
  • Mid-7th century recognition of serf class
  • Midway between slave and free peasant

39
Serfs Rights and Obligations
  • Right to pass on land to heirs
  • Obligation to provide labor, payments in kind to
    lord
  • Unable to move from land
  • Fees charged for marrying serfs of another lord

40
Manors
  • Large, diverse estates
  • Lord provides governance, police, justice
    services
  • Serfs provide labor, income

41
The Medieval Manor
42
Life on the Medieval Manor
Serfs at work
43
Women in the Middle Ages
  • Noblewomen were responsible for the entire
    running of an estate while her husband was in
    battle.
  • All women had very limited inheritance rights, as
    all possessions went to the oldest son.
  • In the Middle Ages, the Church portrayed women as
    weak and easily tempted into sin. Yet, women
    were also portrayed as modest and pure in spirit.
  • Learning was generally discouraged for women.

44
Essential Questions
  • What was the significance of the invention of the
    heavy plow for the European economy?
  • Although trade constricted in the early middle
    ages, where and how was it still going on?

45
The Economy of Early Medieval Europe
  • Agricultural center moves north from
    Mediterranean
  • 8th century iron-tipped plow introduced in Europe
  • Draft animals bred
  • Water mill technology
  • Agricultural output insufficient to support
    growth of cities
  • Strong Mediterranean trade despite Muslim
    domination of sea

46
Norse Merchant Mariners
  • Commerce or plunder as convenient
  • Link with the Islamic world for trade

47
Population Growth of Europe, 200-1000 CE
48
The Formation of Christian Europe
  • Clovis conversion forms strong alliance with
    Roman Christianity
  • Church supplies Clovis with class of literate
    information workers
  • Scribes
  • secretaries

49
The Franks and the Church
  • Protectors of the Papacy
  • Charlemagne destroys Lombards, who threatened
    Pope, Rome
  • Spreads Christianity in northern areas
  • Support of scholarship, scribal activity

50
The Spread of Christianity
  • Charlemagne fights pagan Saxons (772-804)
  • Saxons later adopt Christianity
  • Scandinavia, other pockets of paganism until c.
    1000 CE

51
Essential Questions
  • What was the role of the pope in the early middle
    ages?
  • How did his role evolve over this period of time?

52
Pope Gregory I (590-604 CE)
  • Gregory the Great
  • Asserted papal primacy
  • Prominent theologian
  • Sacrament of penance
  • Major missionary activity, especially in England

53
Essential Questions
  • How did monasticism develop in early medieval
    Europe?
  • What was the significance of the monasteries to
    the European society and economy?

54
Monasticism
  • Egyptian origins, 2nd-3rd centuries
  • Monastic lifestyle expands 4th century
  • Large variety of monastic rules
  • Range from extremely ascetic to very lax

55
St. Benedict (480-547)
  • Established consistent rule for monasteries
  • Poverty
  • Chastity
  • Obedience
  • St. Scholastica (482-543)
  • Sister of St. Benedict
  • Adapts Benedictine Rule for convents

56
Pope Gregory I, by Francisco de Zurbarán
57
Monasticism and Society
  • Accumulation of large landholdings, serfs
  • Social welfare projects
  • Esp. labor contributions
  • Expansion of literacy
  • Inns, orphanages, hospitals

58
The Power of the Medieval Church
  • The church controlled about 1/3 of the land
    in Western Europe.
  • Tithe ? 1/10 tax on your assets given to the
    church.
  • Threat of excommunication and an inderdict gave
    the church tremendous control over European
    peasants and nobles.
  • The selling of indulgences, canon law and
    simony also fortified the churchs power, but
    led many to recognize these acts as corrupt.

59
Church Secular Influence Pope Innocent III
  • The Church claimed authority over all secular
    rulers, many of whom did not recognize this
    authority, often resulting in power struggles
    between monarchs and popes.
  • When King John of England challenged Pope
    Innocent III over the appointment of an
    archbishop, he was excommunicated in 1209.

60
Magna Carta, 1215
  • King John I
  • Great Charter
  • Monarchs were not above the law.
  • Kings had to consult a council of
    advisors.
  • Kings could not tax arbitrarily.

61
The Medieval Church
  • Reform
  • Church wealth influence
  • Some clergy corrupted
  • Reformers
  • Nuns Monks
  • Set up housing, hospitals, schools
  • Missionaries Preservation of learning
  • Everyday Life
  • Christians attend village churches
  • Priests run village churches
  • All Christians pay tithe
  • Power of the Church
  • Pope leads
  • Canon Law
  • Excommunication/ interdict
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