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Title: Energy%20security%20II

Energy security II
  • Europe
  • 5th July 2011

Energy and European integration
  • Role of energy in the process of European
  • The formal integration process that led to the
    formation of the EU began with energy cooperation
    European Coal and Steel Community (1951)
  • European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM, 1957)
  • X
  • Later problems to adopt a common energy policy,
    different positions of the member states
  • Impulses for common EU energy policy security of
    supplies (crises of deliveries), concerns about
    global climate change
  • Institutional backgroud
  • European Commission (DG for Energy)
    Commissioner Günther Oettinger
  • Council Council for Transport,
    Telecommunicationa and Energy
  • European Parliament ITRE (Committe for
    Industry, Research and Energy)

Energy and European integration
  • EU primary law Lisbon Treaty
  • TITLE XXI of the Treaty on the Functioning of the
    European Union (ENERGY)
  • Union policy on energy shall aim, in a spirit of
    solidarity between Member States, to ensure the
    functioning of the energy market ensure security
    of energy supply in the Union promote energy
    efficiency and energy saving and the development
    of new and renewable forms of energy promote the
    interconnection of energy networks
  • X
  • Member States right to determine the conditions
    for exploiting its energy resources, its choice
    between different energy sources and the general
    structure of its energy supply

Energy and European integration
  • Common EU energy policy or 27 paralel energy
    policies of the Member States?
  • 4 important topics of current emerging EU energy
  • Internal market and liberalisation
  • Enhancement of energy efficiency
  • Security of supplies
  • Climate protection

Cornerstones of EC/EU energy policy
  • 2000 - Green Paper Towards a European strategy
    for the security of energy supply
  • Attempt to enhance power of the European
    Commission in this area
  • Commission By 2020 the EUs dependency on
    outside imports of energy sources will grow
    significantly appeal to changes in consumption
    and usage of energy in the EU
  • 2006 Green Paper A European Strategy for
    Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy
  • 2007 legislative package Energy Policy for
    Europe first consolidated formulation of the
    aims of the EU energy policy (not only internal,
    but also external dimension of EU energy policy
    suggestions for concrete legislative and
    non-legislative steps)

Cornerstones of EC/EU energy policy
  • 2007-2008 2 important legislative packages
  • 2007 3rd Liberalisation Package
  • Common rules for the internal market with
    elecricity and gas prevention of monopolist
    practices unbundling of supply and production
    from transmisson (ownership unbundling, ISO,
    ITO) rules concerning relations with third
    countries with non-liberalised energy sector (so
    called Gazprom clause)
  • Regulations on conditions for access to the
    network for cross-border exchanges in electricity
    and to the natural gas transmission networks
  • Estabilishment of ACER

Cornerstones of EC/EU energy policy
  • 2008 - Climate-energy package
  • CCS geological storage of carbon dioxide
  • EU Emissions Trading System (revision)
  • 30 reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020
    (national limits for greenhouse gas emissions)
  • Support of renewables

Other priorities of EU energy policy
  • Energy efficiency
  • Energy security and security o supply (oil and
  • Energy infrastructure and investments (TEN-E)
  • External dimension of EU energy policy
  • Baku Initiative (TRACECA)
  • Energy Community
  • EU-Russia energy dialogue
  • Energy and European Neighbourhood Policy (Union
    for the Mediterranean, Eastern Partnership)
  • Black Sea Synergy

EU dependency on outside resource deliveries
(2008) - oil
  • ¼ of the consumption from own resources (UK
    Denmark), 30 imported from Russia, 20 from
    Middle East (esp. Saudi Arabia and Iran), 16
    from Norway, 12 from North Africa (esp. Libya,
    Nigeria, Algeria), 23 other regions (Kazakhstan,
    Azerbaijan, Venezuela, Mexico)
  • Countries like Slovakia, Poland, Hungary or
    Lithuania almost completely dependent on Russian

EU dependency on outside resource deliveries
(2008) - gas
  • 1.3 of world natural gas reserves (mostly North
    Sea) 1/3 of natural gas consumed in EU is
    produced domestically (even UK ceased to be a net
    gas exporter and and is now an importer of gas)
  • 45 of imported gas from Russia Eastern Europe
    60 of their gas consumption (73 CR, 66
    Hungary, 58 Poland, 97 Slovakia) X Western
    Europe only 18 of its total consumption from
  • 24 to EU imported from Norway, 21 from Algeria,
    11 - Nigera (LNG), Libya (pipeline Green
    Stream), Egypt (LNG), Quatar (LNG), Oman

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EU other energy sources
  • Coal
  • In some countries considerably high share as a
    source for electricity generation (Poland,
    Estonia) X predictions that in the EU domestic
    coal production will fall from more than 60 to
    37 of the consumption by 2030
  • In 2005 the main suppliers to the EU South
    Africa (23), Russia (21), Australia (12),
    Colombia (11), USA (7), Indonesia (6)
  • Nuclear energy
  • Division between member countries
  • Finland, France, UK, Czech Republic, Slovakia X
    Germany, Austria
  • Renewables
  • Biomass, hydropower (Nordic, Alpine and Iberian
    Mountains), wind power (esp.Germany and Spain),
    geothermal power (Italy), solar power (Greece,
    Germany, Austria)

Central Europe
  • From 1960s to 1980s building of the key
    pipelines joining the Central Europe with West
    Siberian deposits
  • 1970s and 1980s building of Druzhba
    oil-pipeline and pipelines serving for gas
    transport to Western Europe (esp. Germany)
    process of détente
  • Transcontinental gas pipelines Northern Lights,
    Brotherhood, Progres, Soyuz
  • Brotherhood, Soyuz and Northern Lights most
    important for Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary
    position of transit countries
  • 1995/1996 Yamal-Europe way to strenghten
    Russian deliveries to Western Europe through
    Poland and Belarus partial weakening of the
    Ukrainian route

Czech Republic - gas
  • 98 of Czech gas consumption coming from import,
    around 78 delivered from Russia (2008)
  • Around 20 of imports from Norway
  • X
  • Relatively good capacities as to the security of
    gas deliveries (not only diversification of
    import, but also possibility of reverse flows and

Czech Republic gas
  • Deliveries of Russian gas from 1967
  • Transgas system (Urengoy, Yamburg, Medvezhe
    deposits Brotherhood, Yamal pipelines Soyuz)
  • Transit pipeline from Russia since 1972 rise of
    importance of the CR as transit country (to
    Germany, France, GB, less to Belgium and the
  • Transit pipeline connected with German STEGAL net
    (Wingas Transport GmbH) throug Hora sv.Kateriny
    (deliveries to Germany since 1999)
  • Since 1997 deliveries from Norway partial
    independecy on Russian gas X virtual gas,
    swaping for Russian gas deliveried through
    Transgas system or through German pipeline to
    Hora sv.Kateriny
  • Real deliveries of Norweigan gas importance in
    2009 crisis

CR - importance of transit country position
  • 1998 Transgas and Gazexport contract for
    deliveries of 8 - 9 bcm/y (now cca 7.5 bcm/y) of
    Russian gas prices negotiated till 2013
  • 2006 RWE Transgas extended the contract till
    2035 without specification of price or transport
    route X striving to safeguard the position of
    transit country for Russian gas to the Western
  • Contracts between RWE Transgas and Norweigan
    consortium till 2017

CR - importance of transit country position
  • Gazela pipeline (capacity 35 bcm/y) connection
    Hora sv.Kateriny-Waidhaus connection with German
    OPAL and Nord Stream connection with so-called
    Northern Route
  • Projects of pipelines to Austria (connection with
  • LBL (Lanzhot Baumgarten Line) possible
    reverse flow connection with Nabucco, South
    Stream or LNG Adria
  • After the start of Nord Stream operation a
    decline in the volume of gas transfered through
    the CR is expected X position of transit country
    may be strenghtened after completion of planned
    new infrastructure projects

Russian oil and V-4 future of Druzhba pipeline
  • Interruption of deliveries through the Southern
    line of Druzhba pipeline
  • 2008 CR noticed decline of oil deliveries
    through Druzhba pipeline, Russia announced that
    the decline of deliveries through this route
    would be of larger range
  • CR diplomatic note, speculation about a
    connection of Russian deliveries decline with the
    signature of SOFA agreement with USA and the
    project of radar X official representatives were
    careful with that interpretation
  • Russia the decline of deliveries was a result
    of necessary repairs and revision of the
    pipelines, technical and administrative problems,
    refusal of political interpretation
  • Another problems 2009 (CR, SR)

Future of Druzhba pipeline
  • CR 2010 more than 40 of oil deliveries to
    CR through system TAL IKL
  • Russian concentrates more on oil deliveries
    through tankers using Novorossiysk port
  • Gradual removal of price preferences for Druzhba
  • Speculations about the background (economic
    reasons, different tactic of suppliers)
  • Important topic for energy agenda of V-4
    (Visegrad group) countries March 2010 V-4
    appealed on the European Commission to take into
    consideration the future of Druzhba pipeline in
    decisions about new infrastructure projects of
  • Possible alternative scenarios interconnection
    of V-4 countries with the network and terminals
    in Western Europe etc.)