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ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES: FROM THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT TO GOOD GOVERNANCE

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Title: ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES: FROM THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT TO GOOD GOVERNANCE


1
ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES FROM THE NEW PUBLIC
MANAGEMENT TO GOOD GOVERNANCE
  • Unit 9

2
ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES
  • New public management
  • Good governance

3
New public management definition
  • A management philosophy used by governments since
    the 1980s to modernise the public sector.
  • The wave of public sector reforms throughout the
    world since the 1980s.

4
New Public Management
  • The main hypothesis in the NPM-reform more
    market orientation in the public sector will lead
    to greater cost-efficiency for governments,
    without having negative side effects on other
    objectives and considerations

5
New Public Management
  • NPM, compared to other public management
    theories, is more oriented towards outcomes and
    efficiency through better management of public
    budget.

6
New Public Management
  • achieved by applying competition, as it is known
    in the private sector, to organizations in the
    public sector, emphasizing economic and
    leadership principles.
  • addresses beneficiaries of public services like
    customers, and citizens as shareholders.

7
NPM later developments
  • splitting large bureaucracies into smaller, more
    fragmented ones,
  • competition between different public agencies,
    and between public agencies and private firms
  • incentivization on more economic lines

8
Characteristics of NPM
  • Orientation towards economy, efficiency and
    effectiveness
  • Market principles
  • Effort to impose values and techniques of private
    sector management into the public sector

9
Managerial reforms of public administration
  • Structural
  • Functional
  • Personnel oriented
  • Others (financial, political, social etc.)

10
The new public management
  • New Zealand, the UK, Australia, Canada, the USA
  • International organizations World Bank,
    International Monetary Fund

11
Problems
  • Muddled lines of political accountability
  • Poor contacts with the public
  • Decreased transparency
  • Corruption
  • Additional expenses
  • Neglect of citizens rights, etc.

12
New developments
  • Digital era governance 3 key elements 1)
    reintegration (bringing issues back into
    government control)
  • 2) needs-based holism (reorganizing government
    around distinct client groups)

13
New developments
  • 3) digitalization (fully exploiting the potential
    of digital storage and Internet communications to
    transform governance).

14
Good governance definition
  • Governance process of decision-making and the
    process by which decisions are implemented (or
    not implemented).
  • Hereby, public institutions conduct public
    affairs, manage public resources, and guarantee
    the realization of human rights.

15
Good governance
  • Good governance accomplishes this in a manner
    essentially free of abuse and corruption, and
    with due regard for the rule of law

16
Good governance
  • Openess
  • Participation
  • Responsibility
  • Effectiveness
  • coherency

17
Characteristics of good governance
18
Participation
  • Participation by both men and women - a key
    cornerstone of good governance.
  • Participation direct or through legitimate
    intermediate institutions or representatives.

19
Participation
  • Participation informed and organized.
  • Freedom of association and expression an
    organized civil society

20
Rule of law
  • Good governance requires
  • fair legal frameworks that are enforced
    impartially.
  • protection of human rights, esp. those of
    minorities.

21
Rule of law
  • Impartial enforcement of laws requires an
    independent judiciary and an impartial and
    incorruptible police force.

22
Transparency
  • Decisions taken and their enforcement done in a
    manner that follows rules and regulations.

23
Transparency
  • information is freely available and directly
    accessible to those who will be affected by such
    decisions and their enforcement.
  • enough information provided
  • information provided in easily understandable
    forms and media.

24
Responsiveness
  • Good governance requires that institutions and
    processes try to serve all stakeholders within a
    reasonable timeframe.

25
Consensus oriented
  • Good governance requires mediation of the
    different interests in society to reach a broad
    consensus in society on what is in the best
    interest of the whole community and how this can
    be achieved.

26
Good governance
  • It also requires a broad and long-term
    perspective on what is needed for sustainable
    human development and how to achieve the goals of
    such development. This can only result from an
    understanding of the historical, cultural and
    social contexts of a given society or community

27
Equity and inclusiveness
  • A societys well-being depends on ensuring that
    all its members feel that they have a stake in it
    and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of
    society.

28
Equity and inclusiveness
  • This requires that all groups, particularly the
    most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or
    maintain their well-being.

29
Efectiveness and efficiency
  • Good governance means that processes and
    institutions produce results that meet the needs
    of society while making the best use of resources
    at their disposal.

30
Efectiveness and efficiency
  • The concept of efficiency in the context of good
    governance also covers the sustainable use of
    natural resources and the protection of the
    environment.

31
Accountability
  • Accountability - key requirement of good
    governance.
  • Not only governmental institutions but also the
    private sector and civil society organizations
    must be accountable to the public and to their
    institutional stakeholders.

32
Accountability
  • An organization or an institution is accountable
    to those who will be affected by its decisions or
    actions. Accountability cannot be enforced
    without transparency and the rule of law.

33
Focus
  • The role of citizens and civil society
  • Transparency
  • Legitimacy
  • Efficiency
  • Human and citizens rights

34
Focus
  • The rule of law
  • Better quality of public services
  • Modern information and communication technologies
  • Better human resources management

35
Citizens
  • Partners who contribute to results of activities
    in public administration
  • Should be informed and consulted
  • Participate in the creation of public policies
    and administrative and other public processes

36
Legal terms
  • Coherency
  • Dosljednost, razumljivost, povezanost
  • Legitimacy
  • Zakonitost

37
Abbreviations
  • UN
  • United Nations
  • EU
  • European Union
  • OECD
  • Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
    Development

38
Abbreviations
  • IMF
  • International Monetary Fund
  • WB
  • World Bank

39
Translation
  • Suvremeni razvoj uprave karakteriziraju dvije
    utjecajne doktrine nov javni management i dobro
    upravljanje.

40
Translation
  • Doktrina novog javnog menadžmenta vrlo je
    utjecajna od 1980. Karakterizira je orijentacija
    prema ekonomiji, uspješnosti i ucinkovitosti,
    nastojanja da se državna uprava i javni sektor
    podvrgnu tržišnim nacelima i metodama koje
    razvijaju poduzetnicko ponašanje te, opcenito,
    nastojanjem da se vecina vrijednosti i tehnika
    upravljanja privatnim sektorom nametne javnom
    sektoru.

41
Translation
  • Mjere i ucinci menadžerskih reformi javne uprave
    su strukturalni, funkcionalni, usmjereni prema
    osoblju i drugi (financijski, politicki,
    usmjereni prema osoblju itd.)

42
Translation
  • Nova javna uprava široko je prihvacena na Novom
    Zelandu, Ujedinjenom kraljevstvu, Australiji,
    Kanadi i SAD-u. Menadžerski pristup proširio se u
    Europi i drugim kontinentima razlicitom brzinom i
    u razlicitom stupnju. Medunarodne organizacije
    kao Svjetska banka i Medunarodni monetarni fond
    zagovaraju menadžerski pristup.

43
Translation
  • No, od 1990-ih godina primjecuju se i neki
    nepovoljni ucinci minimalizirajucih i tržištu
    usmjerenih reformi javne uprave. Nejasne linije
    politicke odgovornosti, loši kontakti s javnošcu,
    smanjena transparentnost, korupcija, dodatni
    troškovi, ponovno jacanje regulacije,
    zanemarivanje prava gradana su neki od njih.

44
Translation
  • Pod tim uvjetima, UN, EU, OECD, Medunarodni
    monetarni fond i Svjetska banka poceli su
    zagovarati dobro upravljanje.

45
Translation
  • Medu nacelima dobre uprave, EU naglašava
    otvorenost, sudjelovanje, uspješnost i
    razumljivost. Nova doktrinarna orijentacija
    naglašava ulogu gradana i civilnog društva,
    transparentnost, legitimitet, ucinkovitost,
    ljudska i gradanska prava, pravnu državu, bolju
    kvalitetu javnih službi, uvodenje moderne
    informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije i
    bolje upravljanje ljudskim resursima.

46
Translation
  • Gradani se smatraju partnerima koji znacajno
    pridonose krajnjim rezultatima aktivnosti javne
    uprave. Gradane treba informirati i konzultirati,
    moraju sudjelovati u stvaranju javne politike i
    upravnim i drugim javnim procesima.
  • Sve u svemu, dobro upravljanje jekombinacija
    demokratskog i ucinkovitog upravljanja
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