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Roman Art

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Title: Augustus of Primaporta, Early 1st Century BC Last modified by: Durham Public Schools Created Date: 10/25/2009 9:30:48 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Roman Art


1
Roman Art
  • 753 B.C.E.-315 C.E.

2
Unit Theme M.E.R.I.T.
  • Monuments
  • Engineering
  • Realism
  • Interior Space
  • Temples

3
The Roman Empire
  • Rome began its rise to power in the
    Mediterranean.
  • Its massive empire extended through Europe,
    Africa, and Ancient Near East
  • They ruled over numerous cultures such as the
    Britains, Gauls, Greeks, Egyptians, Africans,
    Syrians, Jews and Christians.

4
The Roman Empire
  • Empire lasted 500 years
  • Romulus and Remus (twin sons of Mars) were the
    mythological founders of Rome.
  • It eventually collapsed due to financial stress
    and barbarian invasions

5
Roman Empire
6
Politics and Classes
  • Originally had Kings
  • Established democracy with elected male officials
    known as a Senate
  • Population divided into 2 classes-
  • Patricians-wealthy, upper class
  • Plebians-lower class

7
Roman Empire In a Nutshell
  • Philosophy-Efficiency, organization, practicality
  • Art forms-Mosaics, realistic wall paintings,
    idealized civic sculpture
  • Most famous building-Pantheon
  • Signature city-Rome
  • Role model-Greece
  • World contributions-law, engineering, city
    planning, cement

8
Romans Greeks
  • Rome took over Greece in 146 BCE
  • Conquered then imitated them!
  • Valued Greek cultural riches
  • Imported boatloads of Greek sculpture, pottery,
    and jewelry.
  • Set up workshops to reproduce Greek art and make
    copies of Greek sculpture.

9
Art and Architecture
  • Art was prized but artists were low members of
    society
  • Used to help unify empire
  • Some used for propaganda
  • Unified visual style throughout

10
Architectural contributions
  • Cement meant rounded arches and domes were
    created
  • Shaped and opened up interior space for the first
    time
  • Inventions-
  • Round Arch
  • Barrel Vault
  • Groin Vault
  • Domes

11
Barrel Vault
Round Arch
Groin Vault
Dome
12
Pier- A vertical support that holds up an arch or
vault
13
Pilaster-A rectangular vertical element of
masonry in the shape of a flattened column with
both a capital and a base
14
Spandrel-A triangular space enclosed by the
curves of arches
15
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16
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17
Art of The Republic
18
Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Late 2nd c. BCE
19
  • Early Roman temple
  • Combines Etruscan and Greek elements-
  • High podium
  • Accessible only by the front- single entrance
    with a wide flight of steps
  • Freestanding Ionic columns support an Ionic
    frieze and a pediment.

20
  • Romans added engaged Ionic half columns on the
    sides and back of the cella which is called
    pseudo-peripteral.These engaged columns do not
    actually provide support, they are placed there
    for aesthetic purposes.
  •  
  • A temple which has freestanding columns all the
    way around the temple is called Peripteral
    (like the Parthenon)

21
Imagines
  • Romans had great interest in faces
  • When ancestors in aristocratic families died, a
    wax portrait called an IMAGINE was created.
  • Represented status
  • Very proud of lineage

22
Head of a Roman Patrician, 75 BC
23
  • Life-size marble portrait bust
  • Extremely realistic face, called a veristic
    portrait
  • Realism shows influence of Greek Hellenistic art
  • Full of experience and wisdom- traits Roman
    patricians would have desired

24
Art of Pompeii and cities of Vesuvius
  • The most important city in discovering Roman
    culture is Pompeii-sealed off for centuries in
    volcanic ash

25
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26
Atrium of the House of Vettii,2nd c. BCE-1st c.
CE
27
  • Roman house, seen outside Rome more
  • Focused inward to keep out noise and dust
  • Focus on privacy
  • Sign of wealth and status

28
  • 3a. Compluvium

29
  • Atrium- large open area in the center of the
    house, reception area. Paintings decorated the
    walls.
  • Compluvium- rectangular opening in the roof that
    allowed in air, light and rainwater.
  • Impluvium-rectangular basin in the floor under
    the compluvium that held rainwater

30
  • Triclinium- dining room
  • Cubicula- series of small bedrooms off of the
    atrium.
  • Peristyle- row of columns that surrounded an
    outdoor eating area

31
Wall Painting
  • True fresco
  • Four styles
  • 1st style illusion of marble with real
    architectural details
  • 2nd style figures on shallow stage or
    landscape/cityscape close-up. Painted arch.
    details
  • 3rd style solid color with slender, whimsical
    details
  • 4th stylecombination

32
Second Style Wall Painting, 50-40 BCE
33
  • Inside a cubiculum (bedroom)
  • Use of Linear Perspective- objects appear smaller
    in space by using receding lines that converge at
    a single point.
  • Refined mathematically in Renaissance

34
Still Life with Peaches
35
  • another example of perspective
  • The peaches are placed on receding shelves to
    create the illusion of depth
  • Artist uses touches of white paint to capture the
    effect of light on the surface of the jar.

36
Art of the Early Empire
37
Augustus of Primaporta, 20 CE
38
  • Emperor known for 40 yr. Pax Romana
  • Idealized view of the Roman emperor
  • Propaganda
  • Contrapposto, likeness to Polykleitos
    Doryphorous
  • Confusion between God and man intentional

39
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40
  • Breastplate indicates he is a warrior, judges
    robes show him as a civic ruler
  • Roman oratorical gesture
  • Base Cupid on back of a dolphin- a reference of
    Augustus divine descent from Venus

41
Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE
42
Altar of Augustan peace
  • Made to celebrate Pax Romana under Augustus
  • Lower half-vine scroll traceries meant to
    symbolize peace
  • Upper half- Procession of the Imperial Family

43
Procession of the Imperial Family, from the Ara
Pacis, 13-9 BCE
44
  • Upper half of the altar contains low-relief
    sculptures inspired by the Panathenaic
    Procession.
  • One side shows Augustus leading the procession of
    priests, magistrates, and members of the imperial
    family, including children that took place at the
    founding of the altar.
  • Augustus sought to present his new order as a
    golden age like that of Athens under Pericles.

45
Maison Carree, 20 BCE
46
  • Corinthian psuedoperipteral temple
  • set on a high podium
  • front entrance emphasized
  • used as a model for Jeffersons State Capitol in
    Richmond, VA

47
Pont du Gard, 16 BCE
48
  • Served as a bridge and an aqueduct in Southern
    France.
  • One of 11 aqueducts that brought Rome 350 million
    gallons of water a day-used gravity
  • It was composed of a triple storied aqueduct
    built of limestone that ran for about 30 miles.
  • Mostly built below ground

49
  • Voussoirs-wedge shaped sections that make up the
    arches weighed up to 6 tons each.
  • Arcades-a row of repeating arches.
  • The water channel runs along the top and is
    covered by stone slabs

50
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51
Early Empire
  • The Flavians
  • (family name of a ruling family, included 3
    emperors-ruled 25 yrs)

52
Colosseum, 70-80 CE
53
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54
  • Flavian amphitheatre double theatre
  • Grandest Roman structureglorified Rome
  • Demonstrates both the brilliance and the
    brutality of ancient Rome.

55
  • 3 Emperors involved in construction
  • Built by war prisoners
  • Designed mostly for staging battles between
    animals and gladiators for up to 50,000
    spectators
  • thousands could die every day

56
  • Seats were set by social standing
  • Wealthy families had marble seats closest to
    action with wire screens
  • Poorer families had wooded seats further away
  • Heavy wooden floors covered layers of cells below
    in which gladiators and animals were held.

57
  • An amazing system of winches and lifting tackle
    brought the beasts from their dens to the arena.
  • The floor (which was about 100 meters long) could
    be flooded and used as a shallow lake for mock
    naval battles.

58
  • Primarily built of Concrete
  • covered by marble
  • Interplay of barrel vaults, groin vaults and
    arches
  • Exterior façade has pseudoperipteral columns
    first story Doric, 2nd-Ionic, 3rd floor flattened
    Corinthian each thought of as visually lighter
    than the order below.

59
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60
Young Flavian Woman, 90 BCE
61
  • All people deemed worthy of depiction-not just
    elders/mythological subjects
  • Idealized beauty through contemporary fashionnot
    through imitation of goddesses
  • Marble, graceful long neck
  • Hair creates a dramatic interplay of light and
    dark created with a drill instead of a chisel

62
Roman arches
  • Originally had religious significance
  • FYI At the end of a military campaign, soldiers
    were encouraged to pass under an arched magic
    door to siphon off their aggression, taming them
    for civilian life.
  • Later, freestanding triumphal arches were a
    monumental gateway through which emperors paraded
    during victory marches.
  • Also celebrated other kinds of special events

63
Arch of Titus, 81 CE
64
  • The Emperor Domitian erected an arch to
    commemorate his older brother Titus victory over
    Jerusalem
  • One passageway
  • Psuedoperipteral with COMPOSITE columns
    (Ionic/Corinthian)
  • Spandrels-area between curve of arch and
    entablature/columns.
  • Held winged victory reliefs, like Greek art
  • Famous for reliefs inside passageway

65
Spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem (relief from
the Arch of Titus)
66
  • Under Titus, the Roman army captured Jerusalem
  • Shows the spoils (treasures) from the Temple of
    Solomon carried in the triumphal procession after
    the Romans destroyed it
  • Taking the Menorah , clearly seen as part of the
    spoils.
  • Depicting the most humiliating thing they could
    take-representation of Jewish faith

67
  • Higher relief in front and lower relief behind to
    show space
  • Reliefs are very individualized and creative.
  • Roman quality of crowding space.

68
High Empire
  • The height of power and expanse in the Roman
    Empire

69
Emperor Trajan
  • Trajan was a Spanish-born general who controlled
    Roman troops in Germany
  • Appointed Emperor in a new tradition where a
    successor was named (or adopted) by his
    predecessor
  • So popular he was called, Optimus (the best)

70
Trajans Forum and Markets
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72
Forum
  • A roman city center site of temples and
    administrative buildings. Also used as a market
    and gathering place for citizens.
  • Included a basilica-large rectangular building
    used for a variety of government purposes
  • Connecting market was equivalent to modern day
    shopping center

73
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74
Column of Trajan,dedicated 112 C.E.
75
  • Column inside Trajans Forum
  • Colossal 128 free standing column with a
    narrative continuous 625 spiral frieze based on
    historical event
  • Tells the story of Trajan defeating the Dacians
  • Shows how Trajan and the Romans won due to
    superior efficiency and organization
  • Made Trajan out to be strong, stable, efficient

76
  • 150 episodes hold more than 2500 figures
  • Band gets wider as it moves to the top for
    legibility
  • Trajans ashes placed inside the column
  • Statue at top was nude statue of Trajan, replaced
    by St. Peter in 1600s

77
Pantheon, 125 C.E.
78
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79
  • Temple built to honor all gods. Pan means all
    and theos meansgods.
  • One of the most influential designs in
    architectural history.
  • Frieze Inscription Marcus Agrippa, son of
    Lucius, having been consul three times, built it
  • Its pediment, portico (column lined porch) and
    Corinthian columns are Greek, but the huge dome
    is Roman.

80
  • Reveals the full potential of concrete, both as a
    building material and as a means of shaping
    architectural space
  • Façade has 2 pediments, one deeply recessed
    behind the other.
  • Created out of a giant drum topped by a dome
  • Height of building equals its width (144)
    building is based on a circle, a hemisphere

81
  • Varied weight and thickness of walls
  • Dome wall thickness 20, up at oculus 5
  • Heavier cement recipe at bottom, lighter mix at
    top
  • Interior of drum decorated with statues of gods
    and goddesses, columns, and decorations

82
Pantheon
83
  • Oculus 30 diameter round opening allows for
    sunlight and air acts as a moving spotlight
    across the interior
  • Oculus symbolized Jupiters all seeing eye
  • Coffering-in architecture, a sunken panel in a
    ceiling, which helped lighten the load of the
    dome.

84
  • Rectangular coffering used, originally painted
    blue with gold rosette in middle to represent
    skydome of heaven
  • Rainfall carried away by elaborate drainage
    system

85
Hadrians villa, 125-128 CE
86
  • Huge complex for delight of Emperor Hadrian
  • Highest quality workmanship in mosaics, murals,
    architectural decoration
  • We see here a Canopus colonnade with a cornice
    connecting the tops of the columns-alternating
    rounded and flattened lines.
  • Sculptures put inside rounded arches
  • Frames a reflecting pool

87
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, 175 C.E.
88
  • The Statue expresses the emperors majesty and
    authority
  • Shown on parade, passing before his people
  • Horse is spirited, hard to control, but Marcus
    has mastery over man and beast
  • Characteristic Roman oratorical gesture

89
  • Rider is larger than the horse
  • FYI almost all bronze statues were later melted
    down for the metal value, this one survived

90
Art of Late Empire
  • Characteristics reflect the chaos and dissolution
    of the Roman state.
  • Compositions evolve into those marked by figures
    that lack individuality and are crowded tightly
    together.

91
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus, 250-260 C.E.
92
  • Burial began taking the place of
    cremation--sarcophagi were becoming more popular
  • Extremely crowded surface with very emotional
    figures piled on top of one another
  • No sense of space
  • Chaotic scene of battle

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95
The Tetrarchs, 300 BCE
96
  • Emperor Diocletian appointed 4 rulers known as
    The Tetrarchs (The Four)
  • Artist represents 4 equal partners in power
  • Cling to each other for strength and security
  • Represent unity of the four corners of Rome
  • Lack of individuality-didnt want to represent
    the individual Tetrarchs, wanted to represent the
    concept of the Tetrarchs
  • Made of porphyry-hard purple stone

97
Aula Palatina,(now known as The Basilica), Early
4th century. Trier, Germany
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99
  • Built by a Tetrarch-exemplifies their style
  • -Simple, blocky, imposing, no-nonsense
  • Brick walls originally stuccoed on outside and
    veneered in marble on inside
  • Centrally heated with hot air flowing under floor
  • Optical illusion inside with windows getting
    smaller-distance-tetrarch larger than life

100
Constantine the Great
  • Became emperor by winning Battle of Milvian
    Bridge over Maxentius
  • 1st Emperor to recognize Christianity
  • Issued Edict of Milan, ending religious
    persecution and promoting religious tolerance
  • His rule was the beginning of the end for the
    Roman Empire

101
  • In 330 CE Constantine founded a new Rome on the
    site of Byzantium.
  • Renamed the city, Constantinople.. meant the city
    of Constantine.
  • Constantinople became the capital of the
    Byzantine Empire.

102
The Arch of Constantine, 312-315 C.E.
103
  • Triple triumphal arch
  • Built to commemorate Constantines victory over
    Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in
    312

104
Placed at this location so that the central arch
would, at a distance, frame a 100 foot-tall
statue of the sun god, Sol. Epitome of
reuse/appropriation- Older sculptures and
decorative elements used to decorate the arch,
heads were chopped off and Constantines head was
added
105
Head of Constantine
106
  • 86 head, whole statue over 30 seated. Body has
    been lost
  • part of an enormous figure that sat as the focal
    point inside the Basilica Nova in Rome
  • Idealized portrait timelessness. Similar to
    Egyptian pharoah sculptures

107
What happened next?
108
Beginning of Early Christian art
  • Often true in history of art
  • A period of upheaval was accompanied by
    the emergence of a new aesthetic.

109
  • Empire came to an end around 476 CE.
  • Christian influencesArt became more dogmatic in
    tone.
  • Greek idealism was dying-human figures became
    harsh and brutal.
  • There was a great struggle between pagans and
    Christians.

110
  • Pagans made ancient looking monuments focusing on
    pagan rituals.
  • Christians focused on primitive but emotional
    figures focusing on youthful depictions of
    Christ.
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