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The Medieval Period

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Title: The Medieval Period


1
The Medieval Period
  • 450 1450 A.D.

2
Also Known As
  • The Middle Ages
  • The Dark Ages
  • This was because of a lack of central government,
    poverty and ignorance

3
Characteristics
  • Society was made up of 3 orders clergy,
    nobility serfs
  • Once in an order, a person was pretty much locked
    into it
  • This included their ancestors to follow them

4
The Clergy
  • Subject to their own laws
  • Observed their own levels of social class
  • Administered divine justice
  • Were looked to for blessings
  • Were the guardians of society

5
The Nobility
  • Upper nobility were the kings followed by large
    land owners with titles like Duke or Count
  • Lower nobility were smaller land owners the
    Knight class

6
The Serfs
  • These people worked land owned by others
  • They paid a share to the land owner and kept the
    rest
  • Serfs were free but still beholden to the land
    owners they served

7
What This Means
  • Power Money were held by the few
  • The majority of people were uneducated and
    concerned with survival
  • The church held great power over all

8
The Rise of the Christian Church
  • This setting promoted the rise of a religion that
    promised happiness in the afterlife
    Christianity
  • Serfs saw their lives as a penance to be paid in
    order to gain eternal salvation

9
More About the Rise
  • This attitude helped the nobility to maintain
    control
  • It also gave great power to the church as it was
    viewed as the over riding power in Europe during
    this time

10
Impact on the Arts
  • The majority of art was produced and controlled
    by the church and wealthy
  • Enjoyment of the arts was limited to the few with
    the exception of social fads

11
Characteristics of Medieval Fine Art
  • The arts appeal to the emotions and stress the
    importance of religion in all aspects of life
  • The purpose is to instruct the populace in the
    Christian faith

12
Types of Medieval Fine Art
  • Illuminated Manuscripts
  • Celtic Art
  • Byzantine, Romanesque Gothic Architecture
  • Dance Macabre
  • Gregorian Chant
  • Morality Plays
  • The Tarantella
  • Minstrels

13
Illuminated Manuscript
  • This is artwork that is used to decorate text
  • Drawings are 2-dimentional and use primary colors
    mostly
  • Ornamentation is used freely
  • No other form captures the Medieval spirit as well

14
Examples
15
The Book of Kells
  • The most famous collection of illuminated
    manuscript
  • An Irish manuscript that contained the four
    gospels
  • The detail in the knot designs shows great care

16
Examples
17
Byzantine Architecture
  • Heavy Roman influence vaults, arches, domes,
    columns
  • Mixture of brick, stone mortar
  • Monumental in size
  • Decorated with gold mosaics
  • Middle Eastern

Basilica of Hagia Sophia
18
Mosaics
  • Works created by gluing little, colorful pieces
    of stone together
  • Used by the Byzantines as a major source of
    artistic expression
  • Most works are religious

19
Examples
20
Romanesque Architecture
  • The style of the traditional Medieval castle
  • Geometric shapes
  • Round arches
  • Decorated with Relief Sculptures to teach the
    Christian faith
  • Shelter protection

21
Relief Sculpture
22
Gothic Architecture
  • Gothic was a term used for designs against the
    classical form
  • It was against the Greek Roman styles
  • Tried to create a new Christian style of design

23
More Gothic
  • Since the design was religious in nature, the
    most impressive examples are Cathedrals
  • The most famous of which is the Notre Dame in the
    center of Paris, France

24
Innovations in Design
Pointed Arches
Gargoyles
25
Innovations in Design
Rose Window
Flying Buttress
26
Dance Macabre
  • Art that depicts skeletons dancing
  • Influenced by the Black Death
  • Shows societies infatuation with death
  • Still used in modern art (Halloween)

27
Examples
28
Gregorian Chant
  • When Pope Gregory I decided to reorganize the
    church, he wanted uniform service music
  • This required that a form of notation be created
    so that everyone would be playing the same songs

29
Gregorian Chant
  • This was the first music ever written in a
    universal style
  • Made up of a single melody and nothing else
  • Words are biblical text
  • Was the official music of the church for 1000
    years

30
Polyphony
  • Developed after Gregorian Chant
  • Combines two chant melodies to produce harmony
  • Comes from Greek poly (many) phones (voice)

31
Secular Music
  • Unlike chant polyphony that was for the church
    (sacred)
  • Topics of words were wine, women song
  • Not written
  • Learned by rote
  • Sung with lute accompaniment

32
Morality Plays
  • Drama of the Medieval Period
  • Taught moral lessons from the church
  • 1st dealt with the lives of saints was
    performed in church
  • Classic tales of good vs. evil

33
Everyman
  • Best example of a morality play
  • Protagonist is a symbol for all human kind
  • It tells the story of his life acts
  • Characters are love, greed, death, etc
  • Only good deeds is with him at the end

34
Tarantella
  • Popular dance of the late Medieval
  • Native dance of south Italy
  • 1st move is a jump as if bitten by a spider
  • Dancers play tambourines castanets while
    dancing
  • Named for the tarantula spider

35
Dance Mania
  • Known as St. Vituss Dance
  • Frantic dance to exhaustion that sometimes ended
    in death
  • Believed to combat the plague
  • A combination of dance marathons mosh pits

36
Thus Endth
The Medieval Period
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